Developers’ Data Protection in the Open-Source Application with the Copyleft License
Copyright protection of digital products in an open-source system has led to the emergence of copyleft against copyright. Copyleft licenses in open-source serve to impose limits on creations to protect creators' moral rights. At the same time, personal data protection is one part of personal rights amidst the advent of information technology. The development of copyleft products and licenses that usually take place online can potentially lead to violations that harm application developers’ personal data. This paper aimed to characterize copyleft as an antithesis of copyright and analyze legal protection on the open-source application developers' personal data. Using legal research, this paper showed that open-source licenses could consist of two categories. First, non-copyleft licenses in the form of permissive licenses, included in the software under it and are subject to copyright. Second, the copyleft license, which required licenses to modify and distribute copyleft products. This open-source license adopted a form of a standard contract and personal data protection in copyleft products through open-source sites were using a preventive and repressive way. This paper recommended a copyleft-based legal protection mechanism and creators' data by considering the comparative aspects of the copyleft and copyright concepts' characteristics to respect moral rights.
KEYWORDS: Personal Data Protection, Indonesia’s Copyright Law, Copyleft License.
Azzi, R. Michael, “CPR: How Jacobsen V. KatzerResuscitated The Open Source Movement" (2010) Illinois Law Review.
Becker, M, "Privacy in The Digital Age: Comparing and Contrasting Individual Versus Social Approaches Towards Privacy” (2019) 21 Ethics and Information Technology.
Broussard, Sharee L, "The Copyleft Movement: Creative Commons Licensing," Centre for the Study of Communication and Culture, (2007) 26:3 Communication Research Trends.
Brown, Christopher S, “Copyleft, the Disguised Copyright: Why legislative Copyright Reform is Superior to Copyleft Licenses" (2010) 78:3 UMKC Law Review.
D’Antoni, Massimo, “Copyleft Licencing and Software Development” (2007) Dipartimento di Economia Politica, Universita de Sinea.
Dewi, Sinta, “Konsep Perlindungan Hukum Atas Privasi dan Data Pribadi Dikaitkan dengan Penggunaan Cloud Computing di Indonesia” (2016) 5:1 Yustisia.
Eijkman, Quirine and Daan, “Open Source Intelligence and Privacy Dilemmas: Is it Time to Reassess State Accountability?” (2013) 4 Security and Human Rights.
Frantsvog, Dean A, "All Rights Reversed: A Study of Copyleft, Open-Source, and Open Content Licensing" (2012) 5:1 Contemporary Issues in Education Research.
Gonzalez, Andres G., “GNU General Public License V3: a Legal Analysis” (2006) 3 Script-ed.
Jened, Rahmi, Hukum Hak Cipta (Citra Aditya Bakti, Bandung, 2014).
Karthiayani, A, “Copyleft and Moral Rights: A Viable Solution to Enhance the Interests of Copyright Owners in Open Access Models” (2020) 15 Supremo Amicus.
Khumon, Prapanpong, “Regulation for Cross-Border Privacy in Southeast Asia: An Institutional Perspective” (2008) Econstor.
Lessig, Lawrence, “The Creative Commons" (2004) 65:1 Montana Law Review.
Liis, Ave, “The Concept of Derivative Works under the European Copyright Law in Relation to the Digital Era: Free and Open Source Software Licensing” (2014) Thesis, Lund University.
Ministry of Communication and IT, “Dirjen PPI: Survei Penetrasi Pengguna Internet di Indonesia Bagian Penting dari Transformasi Digital”, Online:
M. Hadjon, Philipus, Perlindungan Bagi Rakyat di Indonesia (Surabaya: Bina Ilmu, 1987).
Maryna Manteghi, “Understanding Open Source and Free Software Licensing Mechanism: A Close Review of the Alternative Approach to Traditional Notions of Software Licensing” (2017). Online: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.2139/ssrn.3082313.
Nurmaya, Nadia, et al., “Fair Use Doctrine in Photocopying Books for Educational Purposes: A Study of Copyright Acts in Indonesia and the United States” (2020) 1:2 Indonesian Journal of Law and Society 114.
OECD. 2018. Privacy Principles.
Olson, David L & Kirsten Rosacker, Crowdsourcing and Open Source Software Participation” (2012) 7:4 Service Business.
Pina, Pedro, “Computer Games, and Intellectual Property Law: Derivative Works, Copyright and Copyleft” (2011) IGI Global Pennsylvania.
Richardson, Megan, “Is Data Protection The New Privacy?” (2013) 93 Amicus Curiae.
Rizal, Muhammad Saiful, “Perbandingan Perlindungan Data Pribadi Indonesia dan Malaysia” (2019) 10:2 Jurnal Cakrawala Hukum.
Schenk, Eric dan Claude, “What Can be Outsourced to the Crowd," Halshs, December 2007.
Shaver, Lea, “Copyright and Inequality" (2014) 92:1 Washington University Law Review.
Sudjana, “Implikasi Doktrin “Fair Use” Terhadap Pengembangan Ilmu Pengetahuan oleh Dosen atau Peneliti dalam Perspektif Hukum Hak Cipta” (2018) 4:2 VeJ.
Tse Gan, Thio “Data and Privacy Protection in ASEAN -What Does it Mean for Businesses in the Region?, Book Report” (2018) Deloitte Tohmatsu Limited.
Universitas Telkom, “Sistem Operasi GNU/Linux” (2020).
Viseur, R., "Forks Impacts and Motivations in Free and Open Source Projects," (2012) 3:2 International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Application.
Williams, Sam, Free as in Freedom (2.0): Richard Stallman and the Free Software Revolution (Boston: The Free Software Foundation, 2010).
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
LENTERA HUKUM has CC-BY-SA or an equivalent license as the optimal license for the publication, distribution, use, and reuse of scholarly work. Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
1. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
2. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
3. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
You are free to:
Share — copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format.
Adapt — remix, transform, and build upon the material for any purpose, even commercially.
The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms.
All papers published in LENTERA HUKUM are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.