Indonesia’s National Strategic Project, Displacement, and the New Poverty

  • Sekar Banjaran Aji Institute for Policy Research and Advocacy (ELSAM), Indonesia
  • Achmad Firas Khudi Chiang Mai University, Thailand


The Government of Indonesia initiated the National Strategic Project comprising a wide range of infrastructure programs across the nation in 2016. The project is indicated by a set of supporting regulations and funding schemes. One of the project's supporting laws is Presidential Decree No. 56/2017 on the mitigation of land procurement social impact. This study seeks to examine the impacts of Indonesia's national strategic project, focusing on socio-economic deprivations and suggesting relevant policy frameworks for the displaced population regarding their well-being and human rights. The desk review of displacement status and human rights will provide an analysis of displacement people's socio-economic condition and fundamental rights of displaced people from a selected district in which displacement has been occurring since 2016. The case study of the chosen community will elucidate the causes and consequences of this displacement case. We will utilize both qualitative and quantitative data taken from official government reports and affected residents.


Aneesh, TV & R R Patil, “Development and Displacement in Kerala: An Experience of Cochin International Airport Limited (CIAL)” (2015) 11:10 European Scientific Journal, ESJ.

Bhattacharya, Prabhat et al, “development-induced Displacement and Human Development Through Industrialisation In India” (2013) 2013 1–5.

Blume, Lorenz & Stefan Voigt, “The Economic Effects of Human Rights” (2007) 60:4 Kyklos 509–538.

Cernea, Michael M, “Understanding and Preventing Impoverishment from Displacement: Reflections on the State of Knowledge *” (1995) 8:3 Journal of Refugee Studies 245–264.

———, Michael M, The Economics of Involuntary Resettlement: Questions and Challenges (Washington DC: The World Bank, 1999).

Downing, Theodore, “Avoiding new poverty: Mining induced displacement and resettlement” (2002) 1 IDNR- Global Network in Displacement and Resettlement Research 5–8.

———, “Creating poverty: The flawed economic logic of the world bank’s revised involuntary resettlement policy” (2002) 12 Forced Migration Review 13–14.

———, “Mitigating Social Impoverishment when People are Involuntarily Displaced© 1” (1996) 2 Understanding impoverishment: The consequences of development-induced displacement 33–48.

Fiala, Nathan, The Economic Consequences of Forced Displacement, HiCN Working Paper, by Nathan Fiala, HiCN Working Paper 137 (Households in Conflict Network, 2009).Indonesia, Government Regulation No. 27/2012 on Environmental Permit

Indonesia, Law Number 2/2012 on Land Procurement for Development for Public Interest

Indonesia, Law Number 5/1960 on Basic Agrarian Principles

Indonesia, Law Number 102/2016 on Land Procurement for Development for General Interest in Accordance with Implementation of National Strategic Project

Indonesia, Presidential Decree Number 56/2017 on The Mitigation of Social Impact of Land Procurement

Indonesia, Presidential Decree Number 58/2017 on The Amendment to Presidential Decree Number 3/2016 on The Acceleration of The Implementation of National Strategic Project

Kamaluddin, Nurul Kharismawati, “Impact of The Airport Development Process in Kulon Progo” (2019) Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta.

Knox, John H, “The Myth and Reality of Transboundary Environmental Impact Assessment” (2002) 96 American Journal of International Law 291–319.

Lewis, Corinne, “Businesses’ human rights responsibilities” (2012) 1:41 Forced Migration Review.

Meth, Paula & Glyn Williams, “Literature Reviews and Bibliographic Searches” in Vandana Desai & Robert Potter, eds, Doing Development Research, 3d ed (London: SAGE Publications, 2006) 560.

PWPP-KP (Paguyuban Warga Penolak Penggusuran – Kulon Progo), A Call for Solidarity : Supporting Struggle of Kulon Progo’s Peasant in Fighting Airport and Airport City, by PWPP-KP (Paguyuban Warga Penolak Penggusuran – Kulon Progo) (Kulon Progo, Indonesia, 2017).

Ruggie, J & OHCHR, Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights: Implementing the UN “Protect, Respect and Remedy” Framework, Report of the Special Representative of the Secretary General on the issue of human rights and transnational corporations and other business enterprises, by J Ruggie & OHCHR, Report of the Special Representative of the Secretary General on the issue of human rights and transnational corporations and other business enterprises (2011).

Sen, Amartya, Development as Freedom, Development in Practice 10 (Oxford, 2000).

Sunardi et al, “Livelihood status of resettlers affected by the Saguling Dam project, 25 years after inundation” (2013) 29:1 International Journal of Water Resources Development 25–34.

Terminski, Bogumil, Development-Induced Displacement and Resettlement: Theoretical Frameworks and Current Challenges (Development, 2013).

Ty, Pham Huu, A C M Van Westen & Annelies Zoomers, “Compensation and Resettlement Policies after Compulsory Land Acquisition for Hydropower Development in Vietnam: Policy and Practice” (2013) 2:4 Land 678–704.
How to Cite
AJI, Sekar Banjaran; KHUDI, Achmad Firas. Indonesia’s National Strategic Project, Displacement, and the New Poverty. Journal of Southeast Asian Human Rights, [S.l.], v. 5, n. 2, p. 136-153, dec. 2021. ISSN 2599-2147. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 29 feb. 2024. doi:

Most read articles by the same author(s)

Obs.: This plugin requires at least one statistics/report plugin to be enabled. If your statistics plugins provide more than one metric then please also select a main metric on the admin's site settings page and/or on the journal manager's settings pages.