Essential Oil Composition of Rose Flowers from Karangpring Village Jember District Extracted by Distillation and Enfleurage

  • Ika Oktavianawati Dept. Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Jember
  • Nanda Letisya Dept. Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Jember
  • Priscillia Citra Dept. Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Jember
  • Dwi Purwita Utari Dept. Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Jember
  • I Nyoman Adi Winata Dept. Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Jember
  • Wuryanti Handayani Dept. Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Jember
  • Ari Satya Nugraha Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Jember


Karangpring is one tourist destination villages in Jember district which is popular with beautiful large rose field areas. Therefore, this area grows to be a leading producer of rose flowers in Jember district. However, the bulky presence of these flowers made its price becomes lower in regular days. Local community only uses and sells these fresh flowers as the flower for funeral. The rose flower has a great potency to be explored as a source of rose essential oil production. To date, there is no previous research on studying rose flowers from Karangpring village for its potency on the essential oil production. In this research, rose flowers were subjected to be extracted of its essential oil using two extraction methods, distillation, and enfleurage. Hydrodistillation resulted two phases of distillates, above part formed a cloudy white phase as a normal essential oil extracted from plants, and the lower phase was an aqueous phase containing rose hydrosols. Both phases of these condensates were analyzed using GCMS. Data explained that above phase, with a yield oil of 0.07%, only contains long-chain hydrocarbons such as n-nonadecane, n-heptadecane, 9-nonadecene, and eicosane, while the lower phase only contains 2-phenylethyl alcohol. On the other hand, enfleurage of fresh rose flowers resulted in 0.06% oil yield. GCMS analysis of this oil shows that 2-phenylethyl alcohol, eugenol, and phenylacetic acid are three major compounds which take more than 85% of total rose absolute. The results show that enfleurage is a better method for extracting rose oil in better quality than using the distillation method, in term of the variety of volatile components. Meanwhile, hydrodistillation is still benefiting from producing rose water that is qualified as an industrial additive agent for food and cosmetic productions or even a new potent of agromedicine products.
Keywords: rose, rose oil, rose water, rose absolute, distillation, enfleurage.


Adams, T.B., Cohen, S.M., Doull, J., Feron, V.J., Goodman, J.I., Marnett, L.J., Munro, I.C., Portoghese, P.S., Smith, R.L., Waddell, W.J., Wagner, B.M. 2005. The FEMA GRAS Assessment of Phenylethyl Alcohol, Aldehyde, Acid, and Related Acetals and Esters Used as Flavor Ingredients. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 43: 1179-1206.

Agaoglu, Y.S. 2000. Rose Oil Industry and the Production of Oil Rose (Rosa damascene Mill.) in Turkey. Biotechnology and Biotechnological Equipment.14(2): 8-15.

Agarwal, S.G., Gupta, A., Kapahi, B.K., Baleshwar, Thappa, R.K., and Suri, O.P. 2003. Chemical Composition of Rose Water Volatiles. Journal of Essential Oil Research.17(3): 265-267.

Alalwan, T.A., Mandeel, Q.A., Al-Sarhani, L. 2017. Traditional Plant-Based Foods and Beverages in Bahrain. Journal of Ethnic Foods.4: 274-283.

Arifin, S. 2017. Sirup dan The menjadi Solusi Petani Bunga Mawar. Indikator Online.
22 Agustus 2017.

Arifin, S. 2017. Wisata Bunga Mawar di Jember. Indikator Online. 22 Agustus 2017.

Babu, K.G.D., Singh, B., Joshi, V.P., Singh, V. 2002. Essential Oil Composition of Damask Rose (Rosa damascena Mill.) Distilled Under Different Pressures and Temperatures. Flavour and Fragrance Journal.17: 136-140.

Derap Desa. 2010. Desa Karangpring Kecamatan Sukorambi. Mawar Menghampar di Penanggungan. Edisi XXIX. Maret 2010: 40.

Dobreva, A., Velcheva, A., Bardarov, V., Bardarov, K. 2013. Chemical Composition of Different Genotypes Oil-Bearing Roses. Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science.19(6): 1213-1218.

Eikani, M.H., Golmohammad, F., Rowshanzamir, S., Mirza, M. 2005. Recovery of Water-Soluble Constituents of Rose Oil Using Simultaneous Distillation-Extraction. Flavour and Fragrance Journal.20: 555-558.

Gandolfi, R., Cavenago, K., Gualandris, R., Gago, J.V.S., Molinari, F. 2004. Production of 2-Phenylacetic Acid and Phenylacetaldehyde by Oxidation of 2-Phenylethanol with Free Immobilized Cells of Acetobacter aceti. Process Biochemistry.39: 747-751.

Hirata, H., Ohnishi, T., Watanabe, N. 2016. Biosynthesis of Floral Scent 2-Phenylethanol in Rose Flowers.Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry.80(10): 1865-1873.

Hosni, K., Kerkenni, A., Medfei, W., Brahim, N.B., Sebei, H. 2010. Volatile Oil Constituents of Rosa canina L.: Quality as Affected by the Distillation Method. Organic Chemistry International.2010: 1-7.

Karizaki, V.M. 2016. Ethnic and Traditional Iranian Rice-Based Foods. Journal of Ethnic Foods.3: 124-134.

Karmous, T., Raynaud, C., Spoormans, K., Ayed, N., Talou, T. 2004. Aroma Profile Comparison of Different Tunisian Aromatic Waters. Journal of Essential Oil-Bearing Plants.7(1): 16-31.

Kovacheva, N., Rusanov, K., Atanassov, I. 2010. Industrial Cultivation of Oil Bearing Rose and Rose Oil Production in Bulgaria during 21st Century, Directions and Challenges .Biotechnology and Biotechnological Equipment.24(2): 1793-1798.

Kovats, E. 1987. Composition of Essential oils. Part 7. Bulgarian Oil of Rose (Rosa damascena Mill.). Journal of Chromatography.406: 185-222.

Kumar, R., Sharma, S., Kaundal, M., Sood, S., Agnihotri, V.K. 2016. Variation in Essential Oil Content and Composition of Damask Rose (Rosa damascena Mill.) Flowers by Salt Application Under Mid Hills of the Western
Himalayas. Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants.19(2): 297-306.

Kumar, R., Sharma, S., Sood, S., Agnihotri, V.K., Singh, V., Singh, B. 2014. Evaluation of Several Rosa damascena Varieties and Rosa bourboniana Accession for Essential Oil Content and Composition in Western Himalayas. Journal of Essential Oil Research.26(3): 147-152.

Kurkeuoglu, M., and Baser, K.H.C. 2003. Studies on Turkish Rose Concrete, Absolute, and Hydrosol. Chemistry of Natural Compounds.39(5): 457-464.

Moein, M., Karami, F., Tavallali, H., Ghasemi, Y. 2010. Composition of the Essential Oil of Rosa damascena Mill. from South of Iran. Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences.6(1): 59-62.

Najem, W., Beyrouthy, M.E., Wakim, L.H, Neema, C., Ouaini, N. 2011. Essential Oil Composition of Rosa damascena Mill. From Different Localities in Lebanon.Acta Botanica Gallica.158(3): 365-373.

Oktavianawati, I., Susianti, S.A., Nurfadila, L., Winata, I.N.A. 2017. Enfleuration and Characterization of Essential Oil from Cananga odorata. Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Life Sciences and Biotechnology. pp: 106.

Oktavianawati, I., Winata, I.N.A., Putra, S.D. 2018. Aplikasi Teknologi Pembuatan Sabun Mawar pada Kelompok Petani Mawar di Kabupaten Jember. Prosiding Seminar Nasional Inovasi dan Aplikasi Teknologi di Industri 2018. Tema B Abdimas: 391-393.

Pal, P.K. 2013. Evaluation, Genetic Diversity, Recent Development of Distillation Method, Chalengges and Opportunities of Rosa damascene: A Review.Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants.16(1): 1-10.

Reverchon, E., Porta, G.D., Gorgoglione, D. 1997. Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Volatile Oil from Rose Concrete. Flavour and Fragrance Journal. 12: 37-41.

Rusanov, K.E., Kovacheva, N.M., Atanassov, I.I. 2011. Comparative GC/MS Analysis of Rose Flower and Distilled Oil Volatiles of the Oil Bearing Rose Rosa damascene. Biotechnology and Biotechnological Equipment.25(1): 2210-2216.

Saati, E.A., Theovilla, R.R.D., Simon, B.W., Aulanni’am. 2011. Optimalisasi Fungsi Pigmen Bunga Mawar Sortiran sebagai Zat Pewarna Alami dan Bioaktif pada Beberapa Produk Industri.Jurnal Teknik Industri.12(2): 133-140.

Sakai, M., Hirata, H., Sayama, H., Sekiguchi, K., Itano, H., Asai, T., Dohra, H., Hara, M., Watanabe, N. 2007. Production of 2-Phenylethanol in Roses as the Dominant Floral Scent Compound from L-Phenylalanine by Two Key Enzymes, a PLP-Dependent Decarboxylase and a Phenylacetaldehyde Reductase.Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry.71(10): 2408-2419.

Sakai, M., Tomita, S., Hirata, H., Asai, T., Dohra, H., Hara, M., Watanabe, N. 2008. Purification and Characterization of -Glucosidase Involved in the Emission of 2-Phenylethanol from Rose Flowers.Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry.72(1): 219-221.

Soe’eib, S., Asri, N.P., Saptati, A.S.D.N.H., Agustina, D.P. 2016. Enfleurage Essential Oil from Jasmine and Rose Using Cold Fat Adsorbent. Jurnal Ilmiah Widya Teknik. 15(1): 58-61.

Sterrett, F.S. 1962. The Nature of Essential Oils II. Chemical Constituents, Analysis. Journal of Chemical Education.39(5): 246-251.

Ulusoy, S., Tinaz, G.B., Canbay, H.S. 2009. Tocopherol, Carotene, Phenolic Contents and Antibacterial Properties of Rose Essential Oil, Hydrosol and Absolute.Current Microbiology.59: 554-558.

Watanabe, S., Hashimoto, I., Hayashi, K., Yagi, K., Asai, T., Knapp, H., Straubinger, M., Winterhalter, P., Watanabe, N. 2001. Isolation and Identification of 2-Phenylethyl Disaccharide Glycosides and Mono Glycosides from Rose Flowers, and Their Potential Role in Scent Formation. Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry.65(2): 442-445.

Watanabe, S., Hayashi, K., Yagi, K., Asai, T., MacTavish, H., Picone, J., Turnbull, C., Watanabe, N. 2002. Biogenesis of 2-Phenylethanol in Rose Flowers: Incorporation of [2H8]L-Phenylalanine into 2-Phenylethanol and its -D-Glucopyranoside during the Flower Opening of Rosa ‘Hoh-Jun’ and Rosa damanscena Mill. Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry.66(5): 943-947.

Yulianingsih, Amiarsi, D., Sabari, S. 2007. Teknik Enfleurasi dalam Proses Pembuatan Minyak Mawar. Jurnal Hortikultura – Balithi.17(4): 393-398.
How to Cite
OKTAVIANAWATI, Ika et al. Essential Oil Composition of Rose Flowers from Karangpring Village Jember District Extracted by Distillation and Enfleurage. Jurnal ILMU DASAR, [S.l.], v. 20, n. 2, p. 67-74, july 2019. ISSN 2442-5613. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 22 nov. 2019. doi: