FAKTOR RISIKO DAN PENCEGAHAN ANEMIA PADA WANITA USIA SUBUR DI BERBAGAI NEGARA

  • Daniar Dwi Ayu Pamela Program Studi Magister Kesehatan Masyarakat, Fakultas Kesehatan Masyarakat Universitas Airlangga, Jl. Mulyorejo No. 47 60115 Surabaya, Jawa Timur, Indonesia
  • Mochammad Bagus Qomaruddin Program Studi Magister Kesehatan Masyarakat, Fakultas Kesehatan Masyarakat Universitas Airlangga, Jl. Mulyorejo No. 47 60115 Surabaya, Jawa Timur, Indonesia
  • Ira Nurmala Program Studi Kesehatan Masyarakat, Fakultas Kesehatan Masyarakat Universitas Airlangga, Jl. Mulyorejo No. 47 60115 Surabaya, Jawa Timur, Indonesia

Abstract

Anemia adalah suatu permasalahan kesehatan masyarakat secara global. Wanita usia subur adalah salah satu yang terkena dampaknya. Diketahui sekitar 528 juta (29,4%) wanita di seluruh dunia yang melahirkan mengalami anemia. Tujuan dari review ini adalah untuk menetukan prevalensi anemia pada wanita usia subur di dunia, dan mengidentifikasi faktor risiko yang paling banyak terjadi pada anemia di kelompok ini serta pencegahan yang paling efektif. Jenis penelitian ini berupa narrative literature review  dengan sumber jurnal sebanyak 40 artikel berasal dari PubMed, Google Scholar, Elsevier ,BMC dengan terbitan 2015-2020 yang dikumpulkan mulai januari-juni 2021 dan setelah melalui proses screening dan kesesuaian dengan kriteria inklusi penelitian maka diperoleh 10 rujukan yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini. Hasil penelitian menunjukan prevalensi anemia tertinggi adalah di negara berkembang dan tipe anemia yang paling sering terjadi pada kelompok wanita usia subur adalah anemia yang disebabkan oleh nutrisi dan anemia pada penyakit kronis. Peningkatan risiko pada anemia berhubungan dengan beberapa faktor antara lain dengan penggunaan sumber air sebagai air minum, kehamilan, infeksi malaria pada saat kehamilan, variabel dari jumlah anggota keluarga dalam rumah tangga, pendapatan rumah tangga dalam setiap bulan, riwayat infeksi parasit pada pencernaan, durasi menstruasi, dan indeks masa tubuh sesuai dengan usia. Risiko pada anemia defisiensi zat besi berhubungan signifikan (P= 0.05) dengan menikah pada usia muda (19 tahun) dan paritas yang lebih tinggi, riwayat keluarga yang memiliki anemia defisiensi zat besi dan frekuensi konsumsi daging yang tidak rutin. Semua faktor risiko yang teridentifikasi perlu dipertimbangkan dalam menentukan strategi pencegahan dan pengendalian anemia pada wanita usia subur.


Kata Kunci: anemia, wanita usia subur, faktor risiko, pencegahan

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Published
2022-09-30
How to Cite
PAMELA, Daniar Dwi Ayu; QOMARUDDIN, Mochammad Bagus; NURMALA, Ira. FAKTOR RISIKO DAN PENCEGAHAN ANEMIA PADA WANITA USIA SUBUR DI BERBAGAI NEGARA. Jurnal Ilmu Kesehatan Masyarakat, [S.l.], v. 18, n. 3, p. 161-170, sep. 2022. ISSN 2684-7035. Available at: <https://jurnal.unej.ac.id/index.php/IKESMA/article/view/26510>. Date accessed: 09 feb. 2023. doi: https://doi.org/10.19184/ikesma.v18i3.26510.
Section
ARTICLES