• Rokhani Rokhani Department of Agricultural Extension, University of Jember, Indonesia
  • Ahmad Asrofi Department of Agribusiness, University of Jember, Indonesia
  • Ahmad Fatikhul Khasan Doctoral Study Program of Agricultural Science, University of Jember, Indonesia


Climate change is the primary challenge of agricultural production in developing and developed countries. Farmers' perception of climate change is the critical driver in encouraging farmers to take autonomous adaptation practices. Thus, this study aimed to identify factors affecting farmers' perception of climate change in developing and developed countries and take Ghana and Switzerland as the study cases. The study used data from 378 cocoa farmers in Ghana and 109 farmers in Switzerland. The data was obtained from a structured interview and survey and contained socio-economic and farm characteristics of farmers. This study employed an ordered probit regression to estimate the factors affecting farmers' perception of climate change. The results show that landholding, farm income, and education significantly affect farmer perception of climate change. Landholding and farm income significantly affect farmer perception of climate change in Switzerland and Ghana. But, education only significantly affects the farmers' perception of climate change in Switzerland. Meanwhile, age and crops/livestock ownership does not significantly affect farmers' perception of climate change in Ghana and Switzerland. The results also show that Switzerland's farmers have a stronger perception of climate change than farmers in Ghana.

Keywords: climate risk perception, climate change perception, Ghana, Switzerland


Adzawla, W., Kudadze, S., Mohammed, A. R., & Ibrahim, I. I. (2019). Climate perceptions, farmers’ willingness-to-insure farms and resilience to climate change in Northern region, Ghana. Environmental Development, 32, 100466. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envdev.2019.100466

Akbari, M., Najafi Alamdarlo, H., & Mosavi, S. H. (2020). The effects of climate change and groundwater salinity on farmers’ income risk. Ecological Indicators, 110(February 2019). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2019.105893

Alam, G. M. M., Alam, K., & Mushtaq, S. (2017). Climate Risk Management Climate change perceptions and local adaptation strategies of hazard-prone rural households in Bangladesh. Climate Risk Management, 17, 52–63. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crm.2017.06.006

Amadou, M. L., Villamor, G. B., & Kyei-Baffour, N. (2018). Simulating agricultural land-use adaptation decisions to climate change: An empirical agent-based modelling in northern Ghana. Agricultural Systems, 166(October 2017), 196–209. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agsy.2017.10.015

Assan, E., Suvedi, M., Schmitt Olabisi, L., & Bansah, K. J. (2020). Climate change perceptions and challenges to adaptation among smallholder farmers in semi-arid Ghana: A gender analysis. Journal of Arid Environments, 182(June), 104247. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaridenv.2020.104247

Ayanlade, A., Radeny, M., & Morton, J. F. (2017). Comparing smallholder farmers’ perception of climate change with meteorological data: A case study from southwestern Nigeria. Weather and Climate Extremes, 15(September), 24–33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wace.2016.12.001

Azadi, Y., Yazdanpanah, M., & Mahmoudi, H. (2019). Understanding smallholder farmers ’ adaptation behaviors through climate change beliefs , risk perception , trust , and psychological distance : Evidence from wheat growers in Iran. Journal of Environmental Management, 250(July), 109456. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2019.109456

Biglari, T., Maleksaeidi, H., Eskandari, F., & Jalali, M. (2019). Livestock insurance as a mechanism for household resilience of livestock herders to climate change: Evidence from Iran. Land Use Policy, 87(March), 104043. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2019.104043

Cui, X. (2020). Climate change and adaptation in agriculture: Evidence from US cropping patterns. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 101, 102306. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jeem.2020.102306

Elum, Z. A., Modise, D. M., & Marr, A. (2017). Farmer’s perception of climate change and responsive strategies in three selected provinces of South Africa. Climate Risk Management, 16, 246–257. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crm.2016.11.001

Fahad, S., Inayat, T., Wang, J., Dong, L., Hu, G., Khan, S., & Khan, A. (2020). Farmers’ awareness level and their perceptions of climate change: A case of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, Pakistan. Land Use Policy, 96(April), 104669. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2020.104669

Gebru, G. W., Ichoku, H. E., & Phil-Eze, P. O. (2020). Determinants of smallholder farmers’ adoption of adaptation strategies to climate change in Eastern Tigray National Regional State of Ethiopia. Heliyon, 6(7), e04356. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e04356

Huong, N. T. L., Bo, Y. S., & Fahad, S. (2019). Economic impact of climate change on agriculture using Ricardian approach: A case of northwest Vietnam. Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences, 18(4), 449–457. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jssas.2018.02.006

Jamshidi, O., Asadi, A., Kalantari, K., Azadi, H., & Scheffran, J. (2019). Vulnerability to climate change of smallholder farmers in the Hamadan province, Iran. Climate Risk Management, 23(August 2017), 146–159. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crm.2018.06.002

Jiménez, A., Palmero-Cámara, C., González-Santos, M. J., González-Bernal, J., & Jiménez-Eguizábal, J. A. (2015). The impact of educational levels on formal and informal entrepreneurship. BRQ Business Research Quarterly, 18(3), 204–212. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brq.2015.02.002

Kabir, M. J., Cramb, R., Alauddin, M., & Gaydon, D. S. (2019). Farmers’ perceptions and management of risk in rice-based farming systems of south-west coastal Bangladesh. Land Use Policy, 86(December 2018), 177–188. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2019.04.040

Kakumanu, K. R., Kaluvai, Y. R., Balasubramanian, M., Nagothu, U. S., Kotapati, G. R., & Karanam, S. (2019). ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE: IMPACT OF CAPACITY BUILDING, INDIA. Irrigation and Drainage, 68(1), 50–58. https://doi.org/10.1002/ird.2275

Karimi, V., Karami, E., & Keshavarz, M. (2018). Vulnerability and Adaptation of Livestock Producers to Climate Variability and Change. Rangeland Ecology and Management, 71(2), 175–184. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rama.2017.09.006

Kawasaki, K. (2018). Two Harvests Are Better than One: Double Cropping as a Strategy for Climate Change Adaptation. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 0(July), 1–21. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajae/aay051

Khan, I., Lei, H., Shah, I. A., Ali, I., Khan, I., Muhammad, I., Huo, X., & Javed, T. (2020). Farm households’ risk perception, attitude and adaptation strategies in dealing with climate change: Promise and perils from rural Pakistan. Land Use Policy, 91(October 2019), 104395. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2019.104395

Khanal, U., Wilson, C., Hoang, V. N., & Lee, B. (2018). Farmers’ Adaptation to Climate Change, Its Determinants and Impacts on Rice Yield in Nepal. Ecological Economics, 144(February 2017), 139–147. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2017.08.006

Koutsou, S., Partalidou, M., & Ragkos, A. (2014). Young farmers’ social capital in Greece: Trust levels and collective actions. Journal of Rural Studies, 34, 204–211. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrurstud.2014.02.002

Kreft, C. S., Huber, R., Wüpper, D. J., & Finger, R. (2020). Data on farmers’ adoption of climate change mitigation measures, individual characteristics, risk attitudes and social influences in a region of Switzerland. Data in Brief, 30, 105410. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2020.105410

Kweku, D., Bismark, O., Maxwell, A., Desmond, K., Danso, K., Oti-Mensah, E., Quachie, A., & Adormaa, B. (2018). Greenhouse Effect: Greenhouse Gases and Their Impact on Global Warming. Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, 17(6), 1–9. https://doi.org/10.9734/jsrr/2017/39630

Marie, M., Yirga, F., Haile, M., & Tquabo, F. (2020). Farmers’ choices and factors affecting adoption of climate change adaptation strategies: evidence from northwestern Ethiopia. Heliyon, 6(4), e03867. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e03867

Mase, A. S., Gramig, B. M., & Prokopy, L. S. (2017a). Climate change beliefs, risk perceptions, and adaptation behavior among Midwestern U.S. crop farmers. Climate Risk Management, 15, 8–17. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crm.2016.11.004

Mase, A. S., Gramig, B. M., & Prokopy, L. S. (2017b). Climate change beliefs, risk perceptions, and adaptation behavior among Midwestern U.S. crop farmers. Climate Risk Management, 15, 8–17. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crm.2016.11.004

Mustafa, G., Latif, I. A., Bashir, M. K., Shamsudin, M. N., & Daud, W. M. N. W. (2018). Determinants of farmers’ awareness of climate change. Applied Environmental Education & Communication, 0(0), 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1080/1533015X.2018.1454358

Neset, T. S., Wiréhn, L., Opach, T., Glaas, E., & Linnér, B. O. (2019). Evaluation of indicators for agricultural vulnerability to climate change: The case of Swedish agriculture. Ecological Indicators, 105(May 2017), 571–580. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2018.05.042

Ochieng, J., Kirimi, L., & Mathenge, M. (2016). Effects of climate variability and change on agricultural production: The case of small scale farmers in Kenya. NJAS - Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences, 77, 71–78. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.njas.2016.03.005

Ojo, T. O., & Baiyegunhi, L. J. S. (2020). Determinants of climate change adaptation strategies and its impact on the net farm income of rice farmers in south-west Nigeria. Land Use Policy, 95(November 2018), 103946. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2019.04.007

Oyekale, A. S. (2020). Dataset on cocoa production and climate change adaptation strategies in Ahafo Ano North District, Ghana. Data in Brief, 29, 105275. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2020.105275

Singh, S. (2020). Farmers’ perception of climate change and adaptation decisions: A micro-level evidence from Bundelkhand Region, India. Ecological Indicators, 116(April), 106475. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2020.106475

Smith, W. J., Liu, Z., Safi, A. S., & Chief, K. (2014). Climate change perception, observation and policy support in rural Nevada: A comparative analysis of Native Americans, non-native ranchers and farmers and mainstream America. Environmental Science and Policy, 42, 101–122. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2014.03.007

Thamo, T., Addai, D., Pannell, D. J., Robertson, M. J., Thomas, D. T., & Young, J. M. (2017). Climate change impacts and farm-level adaptation: Economic analysis of a mixed cropping–livestock system. Agricultural Systems, 150, 99–108. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agsy.2016.10.013

Woods, B. A., Nielsen, H. Ø., Pedersen, A. B., & Kristofersson, D. (2017). Farmers’ perceptions of climate change and their likely responses in Danish agriculture. Land Use Policy, 65(March), 109–120. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2017.04.007
How to Cite
ROKHANI, Rokhani; ASROFI, Ahmad; KHASAN, Ahmad Fatikhul. FACTORS AFFECTING FARMER'S CLIMATE RISK PERCEPTION IN DEVELOPED AND DEVELOPING COUNTRIES : EVIDENCE FROM SWITZERLAND AND GHANA. JSEP (Journal of Social and Agricultural Economics), [S.l.], v. 13, n. 3, p. 296-306, nov. 2020. ISSN 2356-2382. Available at: <https://jurnal.unej.ac.id/index.php/JSEP/article/view/20283>. Date accessed: 02 dec. 2022. doi: https://doi.org/10.19184/jsep.v13i3.20283.

Most read articles by the same author(s)

Obs.: This plugin requires at least one statistics/report plugin to be enabled. If your statistics plugins provide more than one metric then please also select a main metric on the admin's site settings page and/or on the journal manager's settings pages.