Discrimination against Women in Accessing Higher Education in Cambodia

  • Sophorn Tuy Center for the Study of Humanitarian Law (CSHL)

Abstract

Young women in Cambodia face challenges in accessing higher education. Social norms, financial constraints and other problems are the main root causes in the limitation of opportunities for women to pursue higher education. Social norms of the older generation in Cambodia remain from the past and they often think that it is not necessary for women to study in higher education institutions since a women’s role is to just be a housewife after marriage. Another restriction on women’s access to higher education is that they often have financial problems in supporting their education. Some women have to work in order to support their families, so they have no chance to pursue a higher education. Additionally, since most universities are located in cities, parents often feel insecure about their daughters studying far away from home. Currently there is increased enrollment of young women in higher education due to Government action, as it has ratified international conventions and enacted domestic laws. As well, there is government cooperation with NGOs to establish some strategies and action plans to promote and protect gender equality in all sectors, including the education sector, by improving scholarship opportunities or building dormitories for female students to live in while studying at university. However, these supports cannot provide access to higher education for young women in all areas in the Kingdom of Cambodia, and Cambodia has not yet enacted specific laws to promote the participation of women in higher education. This research aims to explore the opportunities that have been provided to young women to pursue higher education, particularly at the university level. After exploring the opportunities, the researcher will analyze data regarding the challenges for women in accessing higher education. Finally, the researcher will provide some possible recommendations to address these challenges. This research utilized multiple methods, including desk review and structured interviews. Interviews were conducted face-to-face and in focus group discussions (FGD). Desk review focuses on all relevant international and national laws, strategic and action plans related to the promotion of women studying at university and the de facto equality of that issue.

Author Biography

Sophorn Tuy, Center for the Study of Humanitarian Law (CSHL)

Sophorn Tuy is a Librarian/Researcher at Center for the Study of Humanitarian Law (CSHL) of Royal University of Law and Economics (RULE). This article is restructured from her master thesis at Paññāsāstra University of Cambodia (PUC).

References

African Charter on Human Rights and People’s Rights, OAU Doc. CAB/LEG/67/3 rev. 5, 21 I.L.M. 58 (1982), (entered into force 21 October 1986).

Annual Progress Report 2013: Achieving Cambodia’s Millennium Development Goals (Pnom Penh, 2014).
Arab Charter on Charter on Human Rights (entered into forced 16 March 2008).

ASEAN Human Rights Declaration and Phnom Penh Statement on the Adoption of the ASEAN Human Rights Declaration (AHRD) (entered into forced February 2013).

ASEAN Human Rights Declaration and Phnom Penh Statement on the Adoption of the ASEAN Human Rights Declaration (AHRD) (entered into forced February 2013).

Booth, Mary N. ‘Education and Gender in Contemporary Cambodia’ (2014) 4:10 Int J Humanit Soc Sci 9.
Cambodian National Council for Women, Cambodian National Council for Women (2001).

CEDAW, (entered into forced 3 September 1981).

Chowdhury, Azizur Rahman & Jahid Hossain Bhuiyan, eds. An introduction to international human rights law (Leiden ; Boston: Brill, 2010).

Chea, Nich. ‘Higher Education in Cambodia Poor Rural Female Students’ challenges, motivations, and coping strategies’ (2015), online: https://gupea.ub.gu.se/handle/2077/39995.

Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women. Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 18 of the Convention on Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (Cambodia, 2006).

Constitution of the Kingdom of Cambodia, 1993.

Council of Europe. European Social Charter (Revised) (1996).

Council of Europe. Protocol of ECHR, (entered into forced 1 June 2010).

Education for All 2015 National Review Report (Pnom Penh, 2015).

Education Law, NS/RKM/1207/032, (21 November 2007).

Education Strategic Plan 2014-2018 (Pnom Penh, 2014).

Fry, Peter and Rogéro Utui, Literature Review on Equity and Access to Tertiary Education in the Africa Region, ed (Africa, 2009).

History of MoWA (2017).

Kyllonen, Patrick. La importancia de la educación superior y el rol de los atributos no cognitivos en el éxito en dichas instituciones (2012).

Lemaistre, Anne. Remarked by Mrs. Anne Lemaistre, Chair of Education Sector Working Group (ESWG) UNESCO Representative in Cambodia (2015).

Ministy of Education, Youth & Sport. Achievement in School Year 2014-2015 & 2015-2016 (Pnom Penh, 2017).

Ministry of Education Youth & Sports. Annual Report 2009 and Annual Plan 2010: Enhancing Education Quality Project”, ADB Grant No. 0090 - {CAM} ({SF}) (Pnom Penh, 2010).

Ministry of Education Youth & Sports. National Strategic Development Plan 2014-2018 (Pnom Penh, 2014).

Ministry of Education Youth & Sports. Policy on Higher Education Vision 2030 (Pnom Penh, 2014).

Ministry of Education Youth & Sports. The Education, Youth and Sport Performance in the Academic Year 2015-2016 and Goals for the Academic Year 2016-2017, 21-22-23 March 2017 (Pnom Penh, 2017).

Ministry of Planning. Achieving Cambodia’s Millennium Development Goals (Pnom Penh, 2010).

Ministry of Woman Affairs. Education: Gender in Education and Vocational Training Cambodia Gender Assessment (Pnom Penh, 2014).

Ministry of Women Affairs. Five Years Strategic Plan for Gender Equality and Empowerment of Women 2014-2018 (Ministry of Women Affairs, 2014).

Ministry of Women Affairs. Report on Study of emerging gender issues among women, girls and youth in Cambodia (Pnom Penh, 2011)Moeckli, Daniel et al, eds. International Human Rights Law, third edition ed (Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, 2017).

Ministry of Women Affairs. The Implementation of the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action (1995) and the outcomes of the Twenty-third Special Session of the General Assembly (Pnom Penh, 2000).

Nakagawa, Kasumi. More Than White Cloth?: Women’s Rights in Cambodia (Cambodian Defenders Project, 2006).

OHCHR. International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (1966).

Optional Protocol of Convention on Elimination of all forms of Discrimination against women (2000).

Organization and Functioning of Ministry of Education Youth and Sport Royal Government of Cambodia, Sub-decree No. 84 ANKr. BK (9 June 2009), article 23. ‘Our Work-Cambodia MDG’, (2017), online: http://www.kh.undp.org/content/cambodia/en/home/library/mdg.html.

Organization of American States OAS. ‘Additional Protocol to the American Convention on Human Rights in the Area of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (Protocol of San Salvador), 14 November 1988’ (1989) 16 Annu Rev Popul Law 1,234.

Penh, Sopha. Barriers and Motivation for Female Students at Tertiary Education in Cambodia. A Case study in a University in Phnom Penh (2014).

Program of Action of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (Chapters I-VIII) (1995) 21:1 Popul Dev Rev 187, online: https://www.jstor.org/stable/2137429.

Progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals: Report of the Secretary-General (2017).

Rany, Rany, Ahmad Nurulazam Md Zain & Hazri Jamil. ‘Establishment of Institutional Policies for Enhancing Education Quality in Cambodian Universities’ (2012) 1:1 Int J High Educ 112, online: http://www.sciedu.ca/journal/index.php/ijhe/article/view/1024.

Rushdy, Sherif. Achieving Cambodia’s Millennium Development: goal-gap analysis (2009).

Sen, Vicheth. ‘Cambodia’s Higher Education Structure and the Implications of the 2015 ASEAN Economic Community’ (2013) CDRI Annu Dev Rev 24.

Smith, Rhona K M. International human rights law, eighth edition ed (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2018).

Songkaeo, Thammika & Loke Hoe Yeong. ‘Defining Higher Education Issues and Challenges in Southeast Asia/ASEAN within the International Context’ (2016) Head Found.

The Cambodian NGO Committee on CEDAW (2017).

The Organization and Functioning of the Ministry of Women’s Veteran’s Affairs, Sub-Decree No. 88 ANKr. BK (7 October 1999), article 3.

The Role of Higher Education in Society: Quality and Pertinence (Paris, 1991).

UNDP. Gender: Gender Mainstreaming Institutional, Partnership and Policy Context Cambodia Gender Assessment (Pnom Penh, 2014).UNDP. Human Development Report 2015 (New York, 2015).

UNDP. Human Development Report 2016 (New York, 2016).

UNDP. ‘Our Work-Cambodia MDG’, (2017), online: http://www.kh.undp.org/content/cambodia/en/home/library/mdg.html.

UNESCO. Global education monitoring report 2017/18: accountability in education : meeting our commitments (2017).

UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Global education digest 2010: comparing education statistics across the world. (Montreal: UNESCO Institute of Statistics, 2010).

UNESCO. UNESCO National Education Support Strategy (Pnom Penh, 2010).

United Nations. Rapid Integrated Assessment – Cambodia SDG Profile Card (Pnom Penh, 2016).

United Nations. United Nations Millennium Declaration (2000).

UN Women. Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action: The Fourth World Conference (Beijing, 1995).

USAID. Gender and Extreme Poverty (2015).

Vision and Mission of MoWA (2017).
Published
2019-06-26
How to Cite
TUY, Sophorn. Discrimination against Women in Accessing Higher Education in Cambodia. Journal of Southeast Asian Human Rights, [S.l.], v. 3, n. 1, p. 101-123, june 2019. ISSN 2599-2147. Available at: <https://jurnal.unej.ac.id/index.php/JSEAHR/article/view/8402>. Date accessed: 12 nov. 2019. doi: https://doi.org/10.19184/jseahr.v3i1.8402.
Section
Articles

Most read articles by the same author(s)

Obs.: This plugin requires at least one statistics/report plugin to be enabled. If your statistics plugins provide more than one metric then please also select a main metric on the admin's site settings page and/or on the journal manager's settings pages.