Cultural Preservation and Inclusion for the Ifugao People

  • Ellisiah Uy Jocson OneLife Foundation Inc


This study seeks to offer insight into the paradox between two ideologies that are currently being promoted in society and identify the relationship of both towards the indigenous community of the Ifugao in the Philippines. Inclusion is a growing trend in many areas such as education, business and development. However, there is ambiguity in terms of educating and promoting inclusion for indigenous groups, particularly in the Philippines. Mandates to promote cultural preservation also present limits to the ability of the indigenous people to partake in the cultures of mainstream society. The people of the Ifugao, together with other indigenous tribes in the Philippines, are at a state of disadvantage particularly due to the discrepancies between the rights that they receive relative to the more urbanized areas of the country. The divided vantages from the desire to preserve their culture and to become inclusive in delivering equal rights and services seems to present a rift and a dilemma on which ideology to promulgate. Apart from the imbalances, the stand of the Ifugao regarding this matter is unclear, particularly if they observe and follow a central principle. Given the notions of inclusion to accommodate everyone regardless of “race, gender, disability, ethnicity, social class, and religion, it is highly imperative to provide clarity to this issue, and identify what actions to take regarding them. The study aims to understand how they are perceived, implemented and integrated and shall look for manifestations in three areas of the Ifugao, namely the Lamut, Lagawe, and Banaue. The study uses a qualitative-case study design, obtaining data through a review of documents and policies, interviews and observations in order to identify the current status of both ideologies in terms of implementation, integration and acceptance for the Ifugao people in the Philippines.


Amores, Analyn, Enkiwe-Abayao, Leah, Martin, Marlon, Tolentino, Delfin “Ifugao: People of the Earth”(2017). ArtPostAsia & Aboitiz Group of Companies. Philippines

Alicias, Maria Dolores “The Socially Excluded Groups in the Philippines: A Context Analysis for the Voice Program” (2017) Hivos, Oxfam Novib, Ministry of the Foreign Affairs of the Netherlands.

Asian Development Bank, “Indigenous Peoples/Ethnic Minorities and Poverty Reduction” (2002) Pasig City, Philippines

Axelrod, Robert “The dissemination of culture: A model with local convergence and global polarization” (1997) The Journal of Conflict Resolution 41(2) 203–226. online:

Best, Jonathan. “A Positive and respectful look at Traditional Ifugao Culture” (Book Review of Ifugao: People of the Earth) (2018). Business World. online:

Birukou, Aliaksandr, Blanzieri,Enrico, Giorgini, Paolo, Giunchiglia, Fausto “A Formal Definition of Culture” (n.d). DISI, University of Trento, via Sommarive 14, Povo(TN), Italy 38100 online:

Booth, Tony and Ainscow, Mel “Index to Inclusion: Developing Learning and Participation in Schools” (2002) Center for Studies in Inclusive Education.

Daley, Jason “Indigenous Peoples Manage One Quarter of the Globe, which is Good News for Conservation” (2018). online:

Dulawan, Manuel. “The Ifugao” (2006). National Commission on Culture and the Arts, Philippines.

Dulawan, Manuel. “Ifugao: A sociocultural and Political History” (n.d.) National Commision for Culture and the Arts. Manila, Philippines

Ethnic Groups of the Philippines “Ifugao Amganad” (2011). online:

Foundation for the Philippine Environment “Where are Indigenous Peoples Distributed in the Philippines?” (n.d). online:

Goda, Toh “Cordillera: Diversity in Culture Change” (2001). New Day Publishers. Quezon City at 86-129

Goda, Toh. “Urbanization and Formation of Ethnicity in Southeast Asia” (2009) New Day Publishers. Quezon City, Philippines

Ifugao Cultural Heritage Office (ICHO) “2014 State of Conservation Report: Rice Terraces of the Philippine Cordilleras. (2014) Ifugao Cultural Heritage Office & Philippine National Commision for UNESCO

International Labour Organization “Interregional Programme to Support Self-Reliance of Indigenous and Tribal Communities through Cooperatives and Other Self-help Organizations” (2007). online:

Malingan, Jamie Joie. “Gotad Ad Ifugao fosters development anchored on Culture and Tourism” (2018) Philippine Information Agency. online:

Martin, Victor. ” Ifugaos’ Unique Ritual for the Dead Vanishing” (2017) The Philippine Star. online:

Medina, Carlos “106 Ifugao Abu’Wab Tales Documented by Frans Lambrecht, CICM from 1932 to 1957” (2001) St. Louis University. Cordillera Research and Development Foundation Inc. Baguio City, Philippines at 1

Medina, Carlos “CICM Missionaries and Indigenous Filipinos” (2000) St. Louis University. Cordillera Research and Development Foundation Inc. Baguio City, Philippines

Metila, Romylyn., Pradilla, Lea Angela., & Williams, Alan. “Investigating best practice in Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual Education (MTB-MLE) in the Philippines, Phase 2 progress report: Patterns of challenges and strategies in the implementation of mother tongue as medium of instruction in the early years: A nationwide study” (2016). Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade and Philippine Department of Education. Melbourne and Manila: Assessment, Curriculum and Technology Research Centre (ACTRC).

National Commission on Indigenous Peoples “Indigenous Peoples of the Philippines” (n.d) online:
Philippine Statistics Authority “Ifugao Quickstat” (2018) online:

Republic Act No. 8371, “Indigenous Peoples Rights Act” (29 October 1997)

Reyes, Celia M., Tabuga, Aubrey D. “Conditional Cash Transfer Program in the Philippines: Is it reaching the extremely poor?” (2012). Philippine Institute for Development Studies. 5th Floor, NEDA sa Makati Building, 106 Amorsolo Street, Legaspi Village, Makati City, Philippines. online:

Rocamora, Joyce Ann L. ”DOT to Rehabilitate Banaue Rice Terraces” (2018). Philippine TV News. online:

Solang, Benedict “On Defining Regional Autonomy for the Cordillera” (2011). Cordillera Peoples Alliance. Philippines.

Tebtebba “Situation of Indigenous Peoples in the Philippines: Submission to the 59th Session of CESCR” (2016) online:<>

Thomas-Hoffman, Elizabeth A. “Cultural Preservation and Protection” (n.d.) online:

Tharp, Bruce M. “Defining “Culture” and “Organizational Culture”: From Anthropology to the Office” (2009). online:

United Nations “Declaration of the Rights of Indigenous Peoples” (2008). online:

United Nations Development Program “Indigenous Peoples of the Philippines” (2013) Makati City 1226 Philippines. online:

United Nations Development Program “Human Development Report 2016: Human Development for Everyone” (2016) 1 UN Plaza, New York, NY 10017 USA

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) “Rice Terraces of the Philippine Cordilleras” (n.d.) online

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) “Thematic Paper on Education and Indigenous Peoples: Priorities for Inclusive Education” (2014) Bangkok, Thailand. online:

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) “The Salamanca Statement and Framework for Action on Special Needs Education” (1994) Paris, France. online: <>

United Nations “Conventions on the Rights of the Child” (1989) UNICEF UK 30a Great Sutton Street London. online:

United States Department of State “2005–2006 Annual Report on the U.S. Ambassadors Fund for Cultural Preservation” Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs, United States Department of State (2006). online:

United Nations (2016). International Day of the World’s Indigenous People. Fact Sheet. Retrieved from:
Williams, Raymond. “Culture is Ordinary” (1958). Convictions. online:

Wolfsenberger, Wolf P., Nirjie, Bengt, Olshansky, Simon, Perske, Robert, Roos, Philip. “The Principle of Normalization in Human Services.Books: Wofsenberger Collection 1” (1972) National Institute on Mental Retardation online:

_______. “Defining Culture and Identities”(n.d). online:
How to Cite
JOCSON, Ellisiah Uy. Cultural Preservation and Inclusion for the Ifugao People. Journal of Southeast Asian Human Rights, [S.l.], v. 2, n. 2, p. 421-447, dec. 2018. ISSN 2599-2147. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 20 june 2024. doi:

Most read articles by the same author(s)

Obs.: This plugin requires at least one statistics/report plugin to be enabled. If your statistics plugins provide more than one metric then please also select a main metric on the admin's site settings page and/or on the journal manager's settings pages.