Dynamics of Shrinking Religious Freedom in Post-Reformasi in Indonesia
Much of the studies on religious freedom in Indonesia have established a striking disconnection between constitutional protections and the actual implementation of religious freedom, underlining the state’s failure as a protector of human rights. Yet, the emphasis on human rights has overlooked why the levels of governmental restrictions are substantially increased in democratized Indonesia, creating a trend of shrinking religious freedom. Using the perspective of civic space, this study analyses the dynamics of such a trend and the involvement of the state as a primary determinant. To demonstrate how and in what way the state engages in creating shrinking religious freedom, this study uses a combination of literature reviews and inspection on past measurements on the religious freedom situation in Indonesia. This study argues that rather than ideological factors, the dynamics of shrinking religious freedom is more related to the unrelenting endeavors from state-actors and agencies to control religion for the purpose of political motives and consideration due to the changing political landscape in a democratized Indonesia.
Arifin, Syamsul. 2010. Attitudes to Human Rights and Freedom of Religion or Belief in Indonesia. Yogyakarta: Penerbit Kanisius.
Bagir, Zainal Abidin. 2018. “The Politics and Law of Religious Governance”, in Routledge Handbook of Contemporary Indonesia, edited by Robert Hefner, New York: Routledge.
BBC. “Setidaknya 200 gereja disegel atau ditolak dalam 10 tahun terakhir, apa yang seharusnya dilakukan pemerintah?”. 29 Agustus 2019. https://www.bbc.com/indonesia/indonesia-49494326
Bertelsmann Transformation Index. Country Reports 2018: Indonesia. http://www.bti-project.org/fileadmin/files/BTI/Downloads/Reports/2018/pdf
Bielefeldt, Heiner (eds). 2019. Politik Kesetaraan: Dimensi-Dimensi Kebebasan Beragama atau Berkeyakinan. Edisi terjemahan. Yogyakarta: Penerbit Kanisius.
Buehler, Michael. 2016. The Politics of Sharia Law: Islamic Activist and the State in Democratizing Indonesia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
____________ and Dani Muhtada. 2016. Democratization and the Diffusion of Sharia Law: Comparative Insight from Indonesia. South East Asia Research. 24:2: 261–282.
Cassidy, Elizabeth K. 2015. Restricting Rights? The Public Order and Public Morality Limitations on Free Speech and Religious Liberty in Un Human Rights Institutions. The Review of Faith and International Affair. 3:5-12.
Colbran, Nicola. 2010. Realities and Challenges in Realising Freedom of Religion or Belief in Indonesia. The International Journal of Human Rights. 14:5.
Concord. 2018. Analysis and Recommendations on the Promotion of Civic Space and Enabling Environment in EPRS External Action. Policy Paper. https://concordeurope.org/wp content/uploads/2018/03/CONCORD_PolicyPaper_CivicSpace_03.2018.pdf
CRCS. 2015. Serial Laporan Tahunan Kehidupan Beragama di Indonenesia: Politik Lokal dan Konflik Keagamaan. Yogyakarta: CRCS UGM.
EPRS. 2016. Religious Pluralism in Indonesia: Harmonious Traditions Face Challenges. Briefing Report.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.