Towards Post-Transitional Justice

The Failures of Transitional Justice and the Roles of Civil Society in Indonesia

  • Sri Lestari Wahyuningroem Universitas Pembangunan Nasional ‘Veteran’ Jakarta

Abstract

When democratization took place in 1998 after three decades of authoritarianism in Indonesia, transitional justice became one of the agendas for the country. With the nature of compromised political transition, transitional justice brought together the interest of the elements who wished to challenge the repressive regime, and those who wished to distant themselves from the old regime in order to return to politics. As the result, transitional justice measures were successfully adopted in the beginning of political transition but failed to achieve its goals to break with the old regime and bring justice to victims. Today, after twenty years since reformasi, elements of the politics are consolidated, including those coming from the old regime. Transitional justice is undergoing a period I refer as “post transitional justice”. The main character of this state is the extensive roles of civil society. I argue in this paper that civil society, in particular the human rights groups, have important roles since the beginning of the transition in setting the agenda for transitional justice until today when state-centered mechanisms failed and led to post-transitional justice situation. These groups shift strategies to work from below and from the margins, which give strong character for post-transitional justice in Indonesia.

Author Biography

Sri Lestari Wahyuningroem, Universitas Pembangunan Nasional ‘Veteran’ Jakarta

Sri Lestari Wahyuningroem did her PhD at the Australian National University (ANU) as an awardee of Australian Leadership Award, with research on transitional justice and democratization in Indonesia. She has been doing research and consultancies on issues related to democracy, human rights, gender, and peace, and involve in activism at both national and international levels. Currently she is a member of Transitional Justice Asia Networks (TJAN), a network of scholars and activists on transitional justice from Asian countries initiated by the Asia Justice and Rights (AJAR).

References

Andalas, P Mutiara. Kesucian politik: agama dan politik di tengah krisis kemanusiaan (BPK Gunung Mulia, 2008).

Antlöv, Hans, Rustam Ibrahim & Peter van Tuijl. “NGO governance and accountability in Indonesia: Challenges in a newly democratizing country” (2006) NGO accountability: Politics, principles and innovations 147.

Arthur, Paige. “How ‘Transitions’ Reshaped Human Rights: A Conceptual History of Transitional Justice” (2009) 31 Human Rights Quarterly 321. Asia Justice and Rights (AJAR). Bringing Them Home: Fifteen Stolen Children

Reunited with their Families in Timor-Leste, Press Release (2017).

Aspinall, Edward. “Indonesia” in Revolutionary and Dissident Movements of the World, 4th ed (Great Britain: John Harper Publishing, 2004).

Aspinall, Edward & Fajran Zain. “Transitional Justice Delayed in Aceh, Indonesia” in Transitional Justice in the Asia-Pacific (Cambridge University Press, 2013).

Aspinall, Edward. Opposing Suharto: Compromise, Resistance, and Regime Change in Indonesia (Stanford University Press, 2005).

Aspinall, Edward. “The Surprising Democratic Behemoth: Indonesia in Comparative Asian Perspective” (2015) 74:4 The Journal of Asian Studies 889.

Aspinall, Edward. “Transformation of Civil Society and Democratic Breakthrough” (2004) Civil society and political change in Asia: Expanding and contracting democratic space 61.

Backer, David. “Civil society and transitional justice: possibilities, patterns and prospects” (2003) 2:3 Journal of Human Rights 297.

Braeuchler, Birgit. Reconciling Indonesia: Grassroots agency for peace (New York: Routledge, 2009).

Brahm, Eric. “Uncovering the Truth: Examining Truth Commission Success and Impact” (2007) 8:1 International Studies Perspectives 16.

Collins, Cath. Post-transitional Justice: Human Rights Trials in Chile and El Salvador (Pennsylvania: Penn State University Press, 2010).

Crocker, David. “Transitional Justice and International Civil Society: Toward a Normative Framework” (1998) 5:4 Constellations 492.

De Greiff, Pablo & Alexander Mayer-Rieckh, eds. Justice as prevention: vetting public employees in transitional societies (New York: Social Science Research Council, 2007).

Duthie, Roger. Building Trust and Capacity: Civil Society and Transitional Justice from a Development Perspective (Full paper) (New York: International Center for Transitional Justice, 2009).

Elster, Jon. Closing the Books: Transitional Justice in Historical Perspective (Cambridge University Press, 2004).

Farid, Hilmar & Rikardo Simarmata. The Struggle for Truth and Justice: A Survey of Transitional Justice Initiatives throughout Indonesia, Briefing Paper (New York: International Center for Transitional Justice, 2011).

Farid, Hilmar, Rikardo Simarmata & M Kelli Muddell. The struggle for truth and justice: a survey of transitional justice initiatives throughout Indonesia, Occasional paper series / International Center for Transitional Justice (New York, N.Y: International Center for Transitional Justice, 2004).

Gready, Paul & Simon Robins. “Rethinking civil society and transitional justice: lessons from social movements and ‘new’ civil society” (2017) 21:7 The International Journal of Human Rights 956.

Hajji, Nadia. Post-Transitional Justice in Spain: Passing the Historical Memory Law (Columbia: Columbia
University Press, 2014).

Hayner, Priscilla. Responding to a Painful Past: The Role of Civil Society and the International Community, KOFF Series Working Paper Dealing with the Past: Critical Issues, Lessons Learned, and Challenges for Future Swiss Policy Mô Bleeker and Jonathan Sisson (eds) (Bern: Swiss Peacce, 2005).

Huntington, Samuel P. The Third Wave: Democratization in the Late 20th Century (University of Oklahoma Press, 2012).

International Center for Transitional Justice & KontraS. Derailed: Transitional Justice in Indonesia Since the Fall of Soeharto (New York: International Center for Transitional Justice, 2011).

Jeffery, Renée & Hun Joon Kim. Transitional justice in the Asia-Pacific (2013).

Jetschke, Anja. “Die Aktuellen Entwicklungen in Indonesien und Osttimor” (1999) 29:10 Antimilitarismus Information 57.

Jetschke, Anja. Human Rights and State Security: Indonesia and the Philippines (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2011).

Juwana, Hikmahanto. “Special Report: Assessing Indonesia’s Human Rights Practice in the Post-Soeharto Era: 1998-2003” (2003) 7 Singapore Journal of International & Comparative Law 644.

Kasim, Ifdhal. Menghadapi Masa lalu: Mengapa Amnesti?, Komisi Kebenaran dan Rekonsiliasi Briefing Paper (ELSAM, 2000).

Kasim, Ifdhal & Edie Riyadi Terre. Kebenaran vs Keadilan: Pertanggungjawaban Pelanggaran HAM di Masa Lalu (Jakarta: ELSAM, 2003).

Kimura, Ehito. “The Struggle for Justice and Reconciliation in Post-Suharto Indonesia” (2015) 4:1 Southeast Asian Studies 73.

Koalisi Keadilan dan Pengungkapan Kebenaran (KKPK). Menemukan Kembali Indonesia (Jakarta: KKPK, 2016).
Lundy, Patricia & Mark McGovern. “Whose Justice? Rethinking Transitional Justice from the Bottom Up” (2008) 35:2 Journal of Law and Society 265.

Mietzner, Marcus. Military Politics, Islam, and the State in Indonesia: From Turbulent Transition to Democratic Consolidation (Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2009).

Nyman, Mikaela. Democratising Indonesia: The Challenges of Civil Society in the Era of Reformasi (Copenhagen: NIAS Press, 2006).

Olsen, Tricia D, Leigh A Payne & Andrew G Reiter. Transitional Justice in Balance: Comparing Processes, Weighing Efficacy (U.S. Institute of Peace, 2010).

Payne, Leigh A & Kathryn Sikkink. Transitional Justice in the Asia-Pacific: Comparative and Theoretical Perspectives, Renee Jeffery & Hun Joon Kim, eds. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014).

Pohlman, Annie & University of Queensland. “A Year of Truth and the Possibilities for Reconciliation in Indonesia” (2016) 10:1 Genocide Studies and Prevention 60.

Pratikno, Cornelis. Komnas HAM 1993-1997: Pergulatan dalam Otoritarianisme (Yogyakarta: FISIPOL UGM, 2002).

Priyono, A E, Willy Purna Samadhi & Olle Törnquist. Making Democracy Meaningful: Problems and Options in Indonesia (Demos, 2007).

Risse, Thomas & Kathryn Sikkink. “The socialization of international human rights norms into domestic practices: introduction” in Thomas Risse, Stephen C Ropp & Kathryn Sikkink, eds, The Power of Human Rights (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999) 1.

Robison, Richard & Vedi R Hadiz. “Reorganising power in Indonesia: The politics of Oligarchy in an age of markets” (2005) 41:3 Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies 395.

Roht-Arriaza, Naomi. “Civil Society in Processes of Accountability” in Ardsley M C Bassiouni, ed, Post-Conflict Justice (New York: Transnational Publishers, 2002).

Setiawan, Bonnie. “LSM sebagai Kekuatan Sosial Baru”, Kompas (17 April 2004).

Setiawan, Ken. Promoting human rights: national human rights commissions in Indonesia and Malaysia (PhD Dissertation, Leiden University, 2013) [unpublished].

Skaar, Elin. Explaining Post-Transitional Justice: The Role of Independent Courts (Place: CMI, 2009).

Suh, Jiwon. The Politics of Transitional Justice in Post-Suharto Indonesia (PhD Dissertation, Ohio State University, 2012) [unpublished].

Surat Ketua Mahkamah Agung (Letter of the Chair of Supreme Court), No KMA/403/VI/2003

Teitel, Ruti. “Transitional Justice Genealogy” (2003) 16 Harvard Human Rights Journal 69.

United Nations. The Rule of Law and Transitional Justice in Conflict and Post Conflict Societies, Report of the Secretary General (New York: Commission on Human Rights, 2004).

United Nations. Updated set of principles for the protection and promotion of human rights through action to combat impunity (New York: Commission on Human Rights, 2005).

Van Zyl, Paul. “Promoting Transitional Justice in Post-Conflict Society” in Security Governance in Post-Conflict Peace Building (Geneva: Center for Democratic Control of Armed Forces, 2005).

Wahyuningroem, Sri Lestari. From State to Civil Society: Transitional Justice and Democratization in Indonesia Australian National University, 2018) [unpublished].

Wahyuningroem, Sri Lestari. “Justice denied?”, (16 July 2016), online: Inside Indonesia https://www.insideindonesia.org/justice-denied.

Wahyuningroem, Sri Lestari. “Seducing for Truth and Justice: Civil Society Initiatives for the 1965 Mass Violence in Indonesia” (2014) 32:3 JSAA 115.

Wahyuningroem, Sri Lestari. “Working from the Margins: Initiatives for Truth and Reconciliation for Victims of the 1965 Mass Violence in Solo and Palu” in The Indonesian Genocide of 1965: Causes, Dynamics and Legacies (Cham: Palgrave Macmillan, 2018) 335.

Wieringa, Saskia E. “The International People’s Tribunal on 1965 Crimes against Humanity in Indonesia: An Anthropological Perspective” in Andrew Byrnes & Gabrielle Simm, eds, Peoples’ Tribunals and International Law, 1st ed (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018) 107.

Zurbuchen, Mary S. “History, Memory, and the ‘1965 Incident’ in Indonesia” (2002) 42:4 Asian Surv 564.
Published
2019-06-30
How to Cite
WAHYUNINGROEM, Sri Lestari. Towards Post-Transitional Justice. Journal of Southeast Asian Human Rights, [S.l.], v. 3, n. 1, p. 124-154, june 2019. ISSN 2599-2147. Available at: <https://jurnal.unej.ac.id/index.php/JSEAHR/article/view/11497>. Date accessed: 22 nov. 2019. doi: https://doi.org/10.19184/jseahr.v3i1.11497.
Section
Articles

Most read articles by the same author(s)

Obs.: This plugin requires at least one statistics/report plugin to be enabled. If your statistics plugins provide more than one metric then please also select a main metric on the admin's site settings page and/or on the journal manager's settings pages.