The Role of Technology in the COVID-19 Pandemic Era: A lesson learned from Indonesia in Increasing Access to Legal Aid

Abstract

The COVID-19 Pandemic has increased the prevalence of legal problems, such as criminality, massive unemployment, domestic violence, and inequality in society. This condition further causes legal aid services to be progressively needed. Meanwhile, many people still do not know about free legal assistance from the Government through legal aid organizations or lawyers through pro bono legal services. Moreover, the global policy encouraging social and physical distancing makes it difficult for people to access the legal aid service provider office directly. Therefore, an accessible and comprehensive platform that provides information and free legal aid services is very much needed in this COVID-19 situation for justice seekers—as internet use is growingly massive during the pandemic. This article shows why and how technology expands access to legal Aid, explained through interviews with legal aid providers and desk review. With the Indonesian case, this study argues that optimizing technology's role does not necessarily involve creating a massive and complicated technological system but rather ensuring the current or existing platform can fulfill justice seeker needs and be inclusively accessible to vulnerable groups. Legal needs assessment and a multistakeholder approach must be encouraged sustainably to ensure the platform can achieve those goals.



Keywords: Access to Justice, Covid-19 pandemic, Free Legal Aid, Technology, Vulnerable Groups.

References

Afriandy, Wide, Siti Mazumah, Liya Yuliana, Dominggus Christian, Muhammad Rasyid Ridha, and Ade Wahyudin. Panduan Bantuan Hukum Selama Pandemi Covid-19 (Legal Aid Guideline During the Covid-19 Pandemic). Jakarta: LBHM, 2020. https://lbhmasyarakat.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/Layout-Panduan-Bantuan-Hukum_LBHM.pdf.

Ahmad, Suparji. ‘Pakar Hukum: Penyebab Kejahatan Meningkat Akibat Banyaknya PHK Di Tengah Pandemi COVID-19’. Universitas Al Azhar Indonesia (blog), 30 April 2020. https://uai.ac.id/en/pakar-hukum-penyebab-kejahatan-meningkat-akibat-banyaknya-phk-di-tengah-pandemi-covid-19/.

American Bar Association. Penilaian Akses Terhadap Keadilan Untuk Indonesia Provinsi Sulawesi Selatan (Evaluation on Access to Justice for South Sulawesi Province in Indonesia). Washington DC: the American Bar Association, 2012.

Andini, Ayu. ‘Kesenjangan Sinyal Dari Indonesia Timur (Signal Gap in Eastern Indonesia)’. Kanal Desa, 29 September 2021. https://kanaldesa.com/artikel/kesenjangan-sinyal-dari-indonesia-timur.

Annisa, Rifka. ‘Akses Keadilan Perempuan Korban Di Tengah Pandemi Pandemi (Access to Justice for Women Victims in the Midst of a Pandemic)’, 30 June 2020. https://www.rifka-annisa.org/id/berita/blog/item/718-akses-keadilan-perempuan-korban-di-tengah-pandemi.

———. ‘Dinamika Layanan Konseling Online Di Masa Pandemi (Dynamics of Online Counseling Services in a Pandemic Period)’, 30 June 2020. https://rifka-annisa.org/id/berita/berita-umum/item/715-layanan-konseling-online-di-masa-pandemi.

Asfinawati, Ajeng Larasati, Dio Azhar, and Ratna Batara Munti. Rekomendasi Konfrensi Nasional Bantuan Hukum: Perluasan Akses Keadilan Melalui Optimalisasi Layanan Bantuan Hukum Yang Berkualitas (Recommendation of National Legal Aid Conference: Expanding Access to Justice through Optimize the Good Quality of Legal Aid Service). Jakarta: YLBHI,ILRC, Apik Association, LBHJ, LBHM, LBH Apik, MaPPI-FHUI and PBHI, 2019.
Asian Lawyers Committee for Human Rights. ‘Amicus Curiae Brief Before the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Indonesia on the Constitutional Review of the Law No. 16/2011 Regarding Legal Aid (App. No.88/PUU-X/2012)’, 2000.

Bradway, John S. ‘Legal Aid: Its Concept, Organization, and Importance’. Louisiana Law Review 14 (1954): 554–67.

Cahya, Gemma Holliani. ‘Stay Home, President Says’. The Jakarta Post, 16 March 2020. https://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2020/03/16/stay-home-president-says.html.

Callagry, Martin V. ‘Legal Aid in Criminal Cases’. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 42, no. January-February (1951-1952) (1952).

Center for Population and Policy Studies Universitas Gadjah Mada. ‘Vulnerable Groups and COVID-19 in Indonesia: Informal Sector, Disability, and Women – Center for Population and Policy Studies’, 2020. https://cpps.ugm.ac.id/en/vulnerable-groups-and-covid-19-in-indonesia-informal-sector-disability-and-women/.

Fajriando, Hakki. ‘Access to Legal Aid Services and Information for Prisoners at the Enrekang State Detention Center” (Akses Layanan Dan Informasi Bantuan Hukum Bagi Narapidana Di Rumah Tahanan Negara Enrekang)’. HAM Journal 11, no. 1 (April 2020).

Hukum Online. ‘Wabah Covid-19 Mencekik Masyarakat, Apa Kabar Pro Bono Advokat? (The Covid-19 Outbreak Strangles the Community, How Is the Existence of Pro Bono Advocates?)’, 20 July 2020. https://www.hukumonline.com/berita/a/wabah-covid-19-mencekik-masyarakat--apa-kabar-pro-bono-advokat-lt5f150a50e8615.

Idris, Aradila Caesar Ifmaini, Siska Trisia, Meyriza Violyta, and Gita Nadia Pramesa. Pro Bono Prinsip Dan Praktik Di Indonesia (Principle of Pro Bono and Practice in Indonesia). Depok: Faculty of Law University of Indonesia, 2019.

Indonesia. Act Number 16/2011 regarding Legal Aid (2011).

———. Constitutional Law 1945 (1945).

Indonesia Judicial Research Society. ‘The Condition, and Need Projection of Legal Aid Organization in Lampung’. IJRS (blog), 22 December 2020. https://ijrs.or.id/kondisi-dan-proyeksi-kebutuhan-obh-di-provinsi-sulawesi-selatan/.

Indonesia Ministry of National Planning (Bappenas). ‘Indonesia National Medium-Term Development Plan (RPJMN) 2020-2024’, 2020. https://www.bappenas.go.id/files/rpjmn/Narasi percent20RPJMN percent20IV percent202020-2024_Revisi percent2028 percent20Juni percent202019.pdf.

Indonesia Ministry of Woman Empowerment and Protection of Child (Kemen PPPA). ‘Pentingnya Peran Perempuan Sebagai Kekuatan Bangsa Perangi Covid-19 (TheImportance of Women’s Roles as National Strength in Fighting Covid-19)’, 24 April 2020.
https://www.kemenpppa.go.id/index.php/page/read/29/2646/pentingnya-peran-perempuan-sebagai-kekuatan-bangsa-perangi-covid-19.

Kementerian PPN/Bappenas. Rencana Pembangunan Jangka Menengah Nasional (RPJMN) 2020-2024. Jakarta: Bappenas, 2018.

Komisi National Anti Kekerasan terhadap Perempuan. ‘CATAHU 2020 Komnas Perempuan: Lembar Fakta Dan Poin Kunci (5 Maret 2021)’. Komnas Perempuan, 5 March 2021. https://komnasperempuan.go.id/siaran-pers-detail/catahu-2020-komnas-perempuan-lembar-fakta-dan-poin-kunci-5-maret-2021.

Komnas Perempuan. Kajian Dinamika Perubahan Di Dalam Rumah Tangga Selama Covid 19 Di 34 Provinsi Di Indonesia (Study of the Dynamics of Change in the Household During Covid 19 in 34 Provinces in Indonesia). Jakarta: Komnas Perempuan, 2020.

Komnas Perempuan, IJRS, and MaPPI FHUI. ‘Laporan Penelitian Kualitatif: Tinjauan Penerapan Peraturan Mahkamah Agung Ri Nomor 3 Tahun 2017 Tentang Pedoman Mengadili Perkara Perempuan Berhadapan Dengan Hukum Di 5 Mitra Wilayah Sistem Peradilan Pidana Terpadu Penanganan Kasus Kekerasan Terhadap Perempuan (SPPT-PKKTP)’. Jakarta: Komnas Perempuan, 2022.

Lawyers Committee for Human Rights. What Is a Fair Trial? A Basic Guide to Legal Standards and Practice. New York: The Lawyers Committee for Human Rights, 2000.

LBH Jakarta. ‘LBH APIK Jakarta’s Public Announcement: Cara Mendapatkan Bantuan Hukum Gratis’. LBH Jakarta (blog). Accessed 7 July 2021. https://bantuanhukum.or.id/persyaratan-untuk-mendapatkan-bantuan-hukum-lbh-jakarta/.

Muhammad Ahsan Ridhoi. ‘Kriminalitas Meningkat Selama Pandemi Corona, Sebanyak Apa? (Crime Increases During Corona Pandemic, By How Much?)’. Katadata.co.id, 22 April 2020. https://katadata.co.id/muhammadridhoi/berita/5e9ffbc527b98/kriminalitas-meningkat-selama-pandemi-corona-sebanyak-apa.

Muna, Ayesha Nadya, Diva Tasya Belinda Rauf, and Ika Krismantari. ‘Angka KDRT Di Indonesia Meningkat Sejak Pandemi COVID-19: Penyebab Dan Cara Mengatasinya’. The Conversation, 6 August 2020. http://theconversation.com/angka-kdrt-di-indonesia-meningkat-sejak-pandemi-covid-19-penyebab-dan-cara-mengatasinya-144001.

National Commission on Violence Against Woman. Melayani Dengan Berani: Gerak Juang Pengada Layanan Dan Perempuan Pembela HAM (PPHAM) Di Masa Pandemi Covid-19 (Serving Courageously: The Fighting Movement for Service Providers and Women Human Rights Defenders during the Covid-19 Pandemic). Jakarta: Komnas Perempuan, 2020.

Noviana, Lisa. ‘Konsultasi Hukum Gratis Bagi Masyarakat Indonesia’. kumparan, 20 January 2021. https://kumparan.com/lisanov19/konsultasi-hukum-gratis-bagi-masyarakat-indonesia-1v0xDDPP5cN.

Ojukwu, Ernest. Access to Justice, Chapter 5, Handbook on Prison Pre-Trial Detainees for Law Clinics. Nigeria: Network of University Legal Aid Institutions, 2012.

Open Government Partnership. ‘Legal Aid’, 2020. https://www.opengovpartnership.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/12/Open-Justice_Justice-II_Legal-Aid_Dec2020.pdf.

Open Society Justice Initiatives. ‘Legal Empowerment – an Integrated Approach to Justice and Development’. Draft Working Paper, 2012. https://www.justiceinitiative.org/uploads/149596ab-d845-4882-935d-04e99021642c/lep-working-paper-20120701.pdf.

Pitaloka, Putri Safira. ‘Ini Cakupan Sektor Kritikal, Esensial, Dan Non-Esensial Selama PPKM Darurat (This Is the Coverage of Critical, Essential, and Non-Essential Sectors during Emergency Policy for Restricting People’s Activity)’. Tempo. Accessed 23 July 2021. https://nasional.tempo.co/read/1481559/ini-cakupan-sektor-kritikal-esensial-dan-non-esensial-selama-ppkm-darurat.

Pusparisa, Yosepha. ‘Masyarakat Paling Banyak Mengakses Informasi Dari Media Sosial (Most People Access Information from Social Media)’. Katadata.co.id, 23 November 2020. https://databoks.katadata.co.id/datapublish/2020/11/23/masyarakat-paling-banyak-mengakses-informasi-dari-media-sosial.

Ramadhan, Choky Risda, Dio Ashar Wicaksana, Muhammad Rizaldi, Siska Trisia, Nanda Oktaviani, and Arsa Ilmi. Legal Needs Survey in Indonesia 2019 (Lampung and South Sulawesi Provinces). Jakarta: Indonesia Judicial Research Society, 2020. http://ijrs.or.id/wp-content/uploads/2020/12/Buku-Survei-Kebutuhan-Hukum-IJRS.pdf.

Republic of Rwanda. ‘National Legal Aid Policy’. UN Treaty Body Database, October 2014. https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/Treaties/CAT/Shared%20Documents/RWA/INT_CAT_AIS_RWA_29583_E.pdf.

The National Team for the Acceleration of Poverty Reduction (TNP2K). ‘Vulnerable Groups in the Covid-19 Outbreak’, 4 September 2020. http://tnp2k.go.id/articles/vulnerable-groups-in-the-covid-19-outbreak.

United Nations. International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (n.d.).

Wicaksana, Dio Ashar, Erwin Natosmal Oermar, Siti Rakhma Mary Herwati, Choky Risda Ramadhan, Arsa Ilmi Budiarti, and Nanda Oktaviani.
Indonesian Access to Justice Index in 2019. Jakarta: Indonesian Civil Society Consortium for Access to Justice, 2020.

Wijayaatmaja, Yakub Pryatama. ‘Lima Bulan Pandemi Covid-19, Kriminalitas Naik 7 Persen’. Media Indonesia, 18 May 2020. https://mediaindonesia.com/megapolitan/314036/lima-bulan-pandemi-covid-19-kriminalitas-naik-7-persen.
Published
2023-02-26
How to Cite
BUDIARTI, Arsa Ilmi; WICAKSANA, Dio Ashar; OKTAVIANI, Nanda. The Role of Technology in the COVID-19 Pandemic Era: A lesson learned from Indonesia in Increasing Access to Legal Aid. Journal of Contemporary Sociological Issues, [S.l.], v. 3, n. 1, p. 1-22, feb. 2023. ISSN 2775-2895. Available at: <https://jurnal.unej.ac.id/index.php/JCSI/article/view/27710>. Date accessed: 24 june 2024. doi: https://doi.org/10.19184/csi.v3i1.27710.