Trash Trade and Environmental Regulations

An Assessment

Abstract

Following China's decision to ban trash import in 2018, some countries in Southeast Asia are at the forefront of banning and imposing stringent measures to crackdown trash trade. The new trend in trash trade regulations had further impacted weaker countries and made a haven for dumping waste unless they adopt a uniform mechanism to regulate or completely ban trash trade within the region. This study aimed to analyze the recent response of some developing countries to the trash trade and how likely this response impact other countries in the same region, by taking into account the impact of the trash trade on the environment and health and waste handling capacity. This study adopted doctrinal analysis that combined descriptive and analytical approaches to analyze trash trade and regulation impacts in developing countries and arrived at a need for a holistic approach and national waste management policy to encourage the recycling industry in trash receiving states. This study found that although developing countries had a perfect set of rules and norms regarding sustainable waste management and protecting illicit trash trade, most of them had shortages due to internal and external factors. Solid waste management in developing and least developed countries was a never-ending problem due to the low technological requirements and economic investments. 


KEYWORDS: Trash Trade, Developing Countries, Environmental Justice.

References

Abidjan, Parties Committed to a Pollution-free Africa through the Implementation of the Bamako Convention (Africa: UNEP Press Release, 2018).

Agbor, Avitus A., "The Ineffectiveness and Inadequacies of International Instruments in Combatting and Ending the Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes and Environmental Degradation in Africa" (2016) 9:4 African Journal of Legal Studies.

Agyeman, Julian., Environmental Justice and Sustainable Development (New York: NYU Press, 2005).

Agyeman, Julian, and Bob Evans, "Just Sustainability: The Emerging Discourse of Environmental Justice in Britain?" (2004) 170:2 The Geographical Journal.

Agyeman, Julian, Robbert D. Bullard & Bob Evans, "Exploring the Nexus: Bringing Together Sustainability, Environmental Justice and Equity" (2002) 6:1 Space and Policy.

Ajibo, Kenneth I., "Transboundary Hazardous Wastes and Environmental Justice: Implications for Economically Developing Countries" (2016) 18:4 Environmental Law Review.

Australian Government and Australian Local Government Association, 'National Waste Policy Action Plan' (2019).

Bai, Yikang and Jennifer E. Givens, "Ecologically Unequal Exchange of Plastic Waste? A Longitudinal Analysis of International Trade in Plastic Waste" (2021) 27:1 Journal of World-Systems Research.

Bautista, Ronn, "Philippines Sends Trash Back to Canada after Duterte Escalates Row" online: .

Bell, Keren, Achieving Environmental Justice; A Cross-National Analysis (Bristol: University of Bristol, 2014).

Birnie, Patricia, Alan Boyle, & Catherine Redgwell, International Law and the Environment (3rd edn) (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009).

Brooks, Amy L., et al., "The Chinese Import Ban and its Impact on Global Plastic Waste Trade" (2018) 4:6 Science Advances.

Brownlie, Ian, Principles of Public International Law (7th edn) (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008).

Campbell, Viola Blayre, "Ghost Ships and Recycling Pollution: Sending America's Trash to Europe" (2014) 12:1 Tulsa Journal of Comparative and International Law.

CHEM Trust, "No Brainer – The Impact of Chemicals on Children's Brain Development: A Cause for Concern and A Need for Action", online: .

Christopher B. Barrett, "Commentary; Fairness, Stewardship and Sustainable Development" (1995) 19:1 Ecological Economics.

Clapp, Jennifer, "The Toxic Waste Trade with Less-Industrialized Countries: Economic Linkages and Political Alliances" (1994) 15:3 Third World Quarterly 505-518.

Costa, I.M. & M. Ferreira Dias, "Evolution on the Solid Urban Waste Management in Brazil: A Portrait of the Northeast Region" (2019) 6:1 Science Direct.

Cubel, Pablo, "Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Waste in International Law: The Special Case of the Mediterranean Area" (1997) 12:4 The International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law.

Cusack, Marguerite M., "International Law and the Transboundary Shipment of Hazardous Waste to the Third World: Will the Basel Convention Make a Difference?" (1990) 5:2 American University International Law Review.

Dawood, Shamila, "The Principle of CBDR in BITs to Promote Sustainable Development Strategies while Combating Environmental Degradation: A Developing Country Perspective" in Gammage C and Novitz T (eds.) Sustainable Trade, Investment, and Finance Toward Responsible and Coherent Regulatory Frameworks (Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 2019).

Deleuil, Thomas, "The Common but Differentiated Responsibilities Principle: Changes in Continuity after the Durban Conference of the Parties" (2012) 21:3 Review of European, Comparative & International Environmental Law.

Earth.org, "Sri Lanka is Sending Hazardous Waste Back to the UK After a Two-Year Battle", online: .

European Parliament and the Council of 19, Waste and Repealing Certain Directives (Directive 2008/98/EC).

Epa, Ranjeev, et al., "An Abstract of a Relevant Paper on the Deposits at Aruwakkalu" (2011) 40:2 Ceylon Journal of Science.

Ernesto Soria Morales, "Policy Coherence for Sustainable Development in the Post 2015 Framework" (2014) Presentation at the EU PCD Focal Points Meeting.

Fred Kockott, "Wasted Lives: Mercury Waste Recycling at Thor Chemicals" (South Africa:Earthlife Africa and Greenpeace International, 1994)

Ghesla, Pamela L., et al., "Municipal Solid Waste Management from the Experience of São Leopoldo/Brazil and Zurich/Switzerland" (2018) 10:10 Sustainability.

Gillespie, Alexander, Waste Policy: International Regulation, Comparative and Contextual Perspectives (Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited, 2015).

Honkonen, Tuula, The Common but Differentiated Responsibility Principle in Multilateral Environmental Agreements (Alphen aan den Rijn : Kluwer Law International, 2009).

Howard, Kathleen, "The Basel Convention: Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal" (1990) 14:1 Hastings International and Comparative Law Review 223.

Hultman, Johan & Herve Corvellec, "The European Waste Hierarchy: From the Socio Materiality of Waste to a Politics of Consumption" (2012) 44:10 Sage Journals.

International Law Association, Legal Principles related to Climate Change (Draft Committee Report, 2012).

Jacobs, Michael, Sustainable Development: A Contested Concept, in Andrew Dobson (edt) Fairness and Futurity (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999).

Jiang, Ye, "The CBDR Principle in the UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development" (2016) 2:2 World Century Publishing Corporation and Shanghai Institutes for International Studies China Quarterly of International Strategic Studies.

Kaza, Silva, et al., A Global Snapshot of Solid Waste Management to 2050 (Washington, DC: Urban Development Series World Bank, 2018).

Kaza, Silva, et al., What a Waste 2.0: A Global Snapshot of Solid Waste Management to 2050 (Washington, DC: Urban Development Series World Bank, 2018).

Kellenberg, Derek, "The Economics of the International Trade of Waste" (2015) 7:1 Annual Review of Resource Economics.

Kummer, Katharina, "Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes at the Interface of Environment and Trade" (1994) United Nations Environmental Programme.

Kojima, Michikazu, et al., "Lessons learned from the illegal transboundary movement of hazardous waste in Asia." In International Trade in Recyclable and Hazardous Waste in Asia (Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2013).

Ladapo, Oluwafemi Alexander, "The Contribution of Cartoonists to Environmental Debates in Nigeria: The Koko Toxic-Waste-Dumping Incident" (2013) 1 RCC Perspectives.

Laura Parker & Kennedy Elliott, "Plastic Recycling Is Broken - Here's How to Fix It", online: .

Lipman, Zaida, "A Dirty Dilemma: The Hazardous Waste Trade" (2002) 23:4 Harvard International Review.

Lucia, Vito De, "Common but Differentiated Responsibility" Encyclopedia of Global Warming & Climate Change, Edited by Philander G., 'Thousand Oaks' (2012) SAGE Publications.

Mulder, Nanno, et al., "International Trade and the Circular Economy in Latin America and the Caribbean" (2021) Inclusive and Sustainable Industrial Development Working Paper Series, 3 ECLAC-UNIDO, Vienna.

Pacini, Henrique & Tze Ni Yeoh, "Success of The Circular Economy Hinge on Better Governance of 'Waste Trade" (2021) UNCTAD 2021.

Puckett, Jim, "Disposing of the Waste Trade" (1994) 24:2 The Ecologist.

Rawls, John, "Justice as Fairness" (1958) 67:2 The Philosophical Review.

Sands, Philippe & Jacqueline Peel, Principles of International Environmental Law (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 3rd ed, 2012).

Shrader-Frechette, Kristin, Environmental Justice; Creating Equality, Reclaiming Democracy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002).

Sonak, Sangeeta, Mahesh Sonak, & Asha Giriyan, "Shipping Hazardous Waste: Implications for Economically Developing Countries" (2008) 8 International Environmental Agreements.

Tignino, Maria & Christian Bréthaut, "The Role of International Case Law in Implementing the Obligation Not to Cause Significant Harm" (2020) 20 International Environmental Agreements.

Tim Hayward, "Social and Legal Perspectives on Environmental Problems" in Tim Hayward and John O'Neill, Justice (eds.), Property and the Environment; Social and Legal Perspective Justice, Property and the Environment, Social and Legal Perspectives (Farnharm: Ashgate Publishing Ltd, 1997).

Tromans, Stephen, "High Talk and Low Cunning: Putting Environmental Principles into Legal Practice" (1995) Journal of Planning & Environment Law. United Nations Environment Program, Case of Illegal Traffic (Country Report BC-10/13, BC-11/10, BC-12/8 and BC-13/10).

United Nations Sustainable Development, Conference on Environment & Development: Agenda 21 (1992) Chapter 38.

Vallette, Jim & Heather Spalding, The International Trade in Wastes: A Greenpeace Inventory (Washington, DC: Greenpeace International, 1990).

Van Ewijk, Stijn & Stegemann, Julia, "Limitations of The Waste Hierarchy for Achieving Absolute Reductions in Material Throughput" (2014) 132:19 Journal of Cleaner Production.

Velis, Costas, "Global recycling markets - plastic waste: A story for one player -China" (2014) Report prepared by FUELogy and formatted by D-waste on behalf of International Solid Waste Association - Globalisation and Waste Management Task Force.

Vidal, John, "Toxic E-Waste Dumped in Poor Nations, Says United Nations", online: .

Widawsky, Lisa, "In My Backyard: How Enabling Hazardous Waste Trade of
Developing Nations Can Improve The Basel Convention's Ability to Achieve Environmental Justice" (2008) 38:2 Environmental Law.
Published
2021-11-30
How to Cite
DAWOOD, Shamila; AZHAR, Ajra. Trash Trade and Environmental Regulations. Lentera Hukum, [S.l.], v. 8, n. 3, p. 347-386, nov. 2021. ISSN 2621-3710. Available at: <https://jurnal.unej.ac.id/index.php/ejlh/article/view/27138>. Date accessed: 16 june 2024. doi: https://doi.org/10.19184/ejlh.v8i3.27138.
Section
Articles

Most read articles by the same author(s)

Obs.: This plugin requires at least one statistics/report plugin to be enabled. If your statistics plugins provide more than one metric then please also select a main metric on the admin's site settings page and/or on the journal manager's settings pages.