Prevalence of Hypertension and Related Factors Among Older People In Nursing Home of Jember, East Java, Indonesia

Prevalence of hypertension and related factors among older people in nursing home of Jember, East Java, Indonesia

  • Rismawan Adi Yunanto Program Studi Magister Keperawatan, Fakultas Kedokteran, Universitas Brawijaya Malang
  • Tantut Susanto
  • Hanny Rasni
  • Latifa Aini Susumaningrum
  • Kholid Rosyidi Muhammad Nur


Older people (OP) have high risk for hypertension related with changing during older process in particularly system of cardiovascular. The purpose of this study is to identify prevalence of hypertension and related factors among OP in nursing home of Jember, East Java, Indonesia. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 42 of OP in nursing home. A self-administered questionnaire was used to identify characteristic of participants. Data of activity daily living, cognitive function, emotional status, depression status, and spiritual activity was measured using Katz Index of Independence in Activities of Daily Living (ADL), Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (SPMSQ), The Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 14 (DASS-14), and Daily Spiritual Experience Scale (DSES), respectively. Blood pressure was measured using a standard protocol employing a stethoscope and sphygmomanometer. A logistic regression analysis was used to determine factors related to hypertension among OP. Blood pressure of systolic and diastolic among OP were 131.90 ± 16.56 mmHg and 82.02 ± 10.18 mmHg, respectively. The prevalence of systolic and diastolic hypertension among OP in nursing home were 38.1% and 21.4%, respectively. The factors of systolic hypertension were age (p= 0.038), activity daily living (p= 0.043), depression status (p= 0.012), and spiritual activity (p= 0.015). Meanwhile, factors of diastolic hypertension were age (p= 0.041) and education (p= 0.049). Increasing age of OP related a risk factor of hypertension by supported by there are psychological problems like depression, although could be reduced by existence of spiritual activity of OP. Provision of health education on changes in the cardiovascular system and adaptation of lifestyle changes in the OP will be able to reduce hypertension factors in the OP.


1. Wu L, He Y, Jiang B, et al. Trends in prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension during 2001-2010 in an Urban elderly population of China. PLoS One. 2015;10(8):1-14. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0132814
2. WHO. World Health Day 2013 - Hypertension. A Glob Br Hypertens. 2013:9. doi:10.1136/bmj.1.4815.882-a
3. Kementrian Kesehatan RI. Pusat Data Informasi Kementrian Kesehatan RI Hipertensi. Heal Educ Behav. 2014;2(4):328-335. doi:10.1177/109019817400200403
4. Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan. Riset Kesehatan Dasar (RISKESDAS) 2013. Jakarta; 2013. doi:1 Desember 2013
5. Buford TW. HHS Public Access. 2017:96-111. doi:10.1016/j.arr.2016.01.007.Hypertension
6. Santschi V, Wuerzner G, Chiolero A, et al. Team-based care for improving hypertension management among outpatients (TBC-HTA): Study protocol for a pragmatic randomized controlled trial. BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2017;17(1):1-6. doi:10.1186/s12872-017-0472-y
7. Wei TM, Omar MS. Self-management approaches among hypertensive residents in nursing homes in Malaysia. Malaysian Fam physician Off J Acad Fam Physicians Malaysia. 2017;12(3):8-17.
8. Yang ZQ, Zhao Q, Jiang P, Zheng SB, Xu B. Prevalence and control of hypertension among a Community of Elderly Population in Changning District of Shanghai: A cross-sectional study. BMC Geriatr. 2017;17(1):1-9. doi:10.1186/s12877-017-0686-y
9. Kishore J, Gupta N, Kohli C, Kumar N. Prevalence of Hypertension and Determination of Its Risk Factors in Rural Delhi. Int J Hypertens. 2016;2016. doi:10.1155/2016/7962595
10. Wallace BM. Katz Index of Independence in Activities of Daily Living ( ADL ) Katz Index of Independence in Activities of Daily Living INDEPENDENCE : DEPENDENCE : Ajn. 2008;108(2):67-71. doi:10.1016/S0197-4572(00)70015-2
11. Pfeiffer E. A short portable mental status questionnaire for the assessment of organic brain deficit in elderl y patients. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1975;(23):433-41.
12. Wallace M. The Mini Mental State Examination ( MMSE ) The Mini-Mental State Exam. Eur Radiol. 1999;(3):77-80. doi:january,1999
13. Shahid A, Wilkinson K, Marcu S, Shapiro CM. Beck Depression Inventory. STOP, THAT One Hundred Other Sleep Scales. 2011:63-64. doi:10.1007/978-1-4419-9893-4_8
14. Underwood LG, Teresi JA. The daily spiritual experience scale: Development, theoretical description, reliability, …. Ann Behav Med. 2002;(13):22-33.
15. Currie G, Delles C. Blood pressure targets in the elderly. J Hypertens. 2018;36(2):234-236. doi:10.1097/HJH.0000000000001576
16. Zainol R, Pettit CJ. Elderly and Community Health Care Facilities: a Spatial Analysis. Plan Malaysia J. 2016;14(5). doi:10.21837/pmjournal.v14.i5.192
17. Sombateyotha K, Pichainarong N, Schelp FP, Homchampa P. Effect of institution-based management for elderly health promotion program in northeastern Thailand. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2016;47(5):1062-1088.
18. Bansal SK, Goel D, Saxena V, Kandpal SD, Gray WK, Walker RW. The prevalence of hypertension and hypertension risk factors in a rural Indian community: A prospective door-to-door study. J Cardiovasc Dis Res. 2012;3(2):117-123. doi:10.4103/0975-3583.95365
19. Singh S, Shankar R, Singh GP. Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Hypertension: A Cross-Sectional Study in Urban Varanasi. Int J Hypertens. 2017;2017. doi:10.1155/2017/5491838
20. Irwan AM, Kato M, Kitaoka K, Kido T, Taniguchi Y, Shogenji M. Self-care practices and health-seeking behavior among older persons in a developing country: Theories-based research. Int J Nurs Sci. 2016;3(1):11-23. doi:10.1016/j.ijnss.2016.02.010
21. Facp AFR, Rodriguez-lopez L, Vargas-ayala G, et al. Depression increases the risk for uncontrolled hypertension. 2013;18(1):10-12.
22. Stanetic K, Stanetic M, Jankovic S, et al. Prevalence of depression in patients with hypertension *1. 2017;3(2):16-21.
23. Neupane D, Panthi B, Mclachlan CS, Mishra SR. Prevalence of Undiagnosed Depression among Persons with Hypertension and Associated Risk Factors : A Cross-Sectional Study in Urban Nepal. 2015:1-11. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0117329
24. Chang AK, Lee EJ. Factors affecting self-care in elderly patients with hypertension in Korea. Int J Nurs Pract. 2015;21(5):584-591. doi:10.1111/ijn.12271
25. Bacon SL, Campbell TS, Arsenault A, Lavoie KL. The Impact of Mood and Anxiety Disorders on Incident Hypertension at One Year. 2014;2014.
26. Twinamasiko B, Lukenge E, Nabawanga S, et al. Sedentary Lifestyle and Hypertension in a Periurban Area of Mbarara , South Western Uganda : A Population Based Cross Sectional Survey. 2018;2018. doi:10.1155/2018/8253948
27. Warren-Findlow J, Seymour RB, Huber LRB. The association between self-efficacy and hypertension self-care activities among African American adults. J Community Health. 2012;37(1):15-24. doi:10.1007/s10900-011-9410-6
28. Sohn M-W, Manheim LM, W CR, et al. Sedentary Behavior and Blood Pressure Control. 2015;22(9):1234-1240. doi:10.1016/j.joca.2014.07.007.SEDENTARY
29. Mollaoğlu M, Solmaz G, Mollaoğlu M. Adherence To Therapy and Quality of Life in Hypertensive Patients. Acta Clin Croat. 2015;54(4):438-444.
30. Silva CDF, Borges FR, Costa C, Avelino V, Vaz A, Campos T. Spirituality and religiosity in patients with systemic arterial hypertension Research articles. 2016;24(2):332-343.
31. Javanmard H. The impact of spirituality on work performance. Indian J Sci Technol. 2012;5(1):1961-1966. doi:10.17795/semj39053
32. Supriyadi, Sugijana R, Dwiningsih SU. Religious Therapy as an Alternative Treatment in Reducing the Cortisol Hormone and Blood Sugar. ARC J Public Heal Community Med. 2017;2(3):1-6. doi:10.20431/2456-0596.0203001
How to Cite
YUNANTO, Rismawan Adi et al. Prevalence of Hypertension and Related Factors Among Older People In Nursing Home of Jember, East Java, Indonesia. NurseLine Journal, [S.l.], v. 4, n. 2, p. 146-153, feb. 2020. ISSN 2541-464X. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 06 july 2020. doi:

Most read articles by the same author(s)

Obs.: This plugin requires at least one statistics/report plugin to be enabled. If your statistics plugins provide more than one metric then please also select a main metric on the admin's site settings page and/or on the journal manager's settings pages.