If the research work involves chemicals, human, animals, procedures or equipment that have any unusual hazards inherent in their use, the author must clearly identify these in the manuscript in order to obey ethical conduct of research using animals and human subjects. If required, Authors must provide legal ethical clearance from association or legal organization.
If the research involves confidential data and of business/marketing practices, authors should clearly justify this matter whether the data or information will be hidden securely or not.
The exception to the obligation to include ethical clearance is research involving low and negligible risk. The definition of low and negligible risk (LNR) is as follows: (1) Low Risk: A project in which the only foreseeable risk is one of discomfort. If there is any chance that the research may result in anything more serious than discomfort, the research cannot be called low risk. (2) Negligible Risk: A project in which there is no foreseeable risk of discomfort or harm and if there is any foreseeable risk, it will not be of more than an inconvenience. If there is any chance, no matter how small, that the risk will exceed inconvenience, then the research cannot be classified as being of negligible risk.
For research involving LNR, although the author is not required by this journal to include ethical approval from an ethical committee or institutional review board, the authors must submit a signed checklist that proves that their research is indeed in the LNR category.
Authors from Indonesia are able to get an ethical clearance from the National Research and Innovation Agency (Badan Riset dan Inovasi Nasional - BRIN) at the following url : https://klirensetik.brin.go.id/prosedur, or other authoritative bodies, before doing their studies.