Women and The Poverty Trap (Study on The South Merapi Slope)

  • Hastuti Hastuti Department of Geography Education, Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta, Jl. Colombo No.1 Karangmalang Yogyakarta, 55281, Indonesia http://orcid.org/0000-0001-9566-6689
  • Sri Agustin Sutrisnowati Department of Geography Education, Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta, Jl. Colombo No.1 Karangmalang Yogyakarta, 55281, Indonesia

Abstract

The infection rate of COVID-19 has forced many households into economic hardship when poverty strikes, women are the most affected. In rural areas, the beginning of the poverty trap is economic difficulties in addition to reduced arable land. The research was conducted in Girikerto Kapanewon Turi District, women in the research areas experience increasingly complicated poverty traps. This study aims to find out the social conditions and economic conditions of women during COVID-19, the second objective is to find out the efforts made by women to escape from household poverty during the COVID-19 pandemic, and third to find out how women find alternative social and economic activities during COVID-19. To examine primary and secondary data related to demographics, descriptive quantitative data analysis is essential. Frequency tables are utilized to describe the distribution and pattern of features of particular variables. The demographic characteristics of women in the research region are dominated by their productive age, high school/vocational education, their status as housewives, and their employment in agriculture. The result show women can still meet their food needs from their limited agricultural land. The poverty trap experienced by women is the difficulty in fulfilling household needs other than food such as the cost of educating children, the health of household members, and transportation. Women manage household finances by tightening the fulfillment of household needs, even women have to sacrifice setting aside the fulfillment of their own needs in order to meet the minimum household needs. Women to get out of the poverty trap take advantage of social relations, family ties, and government assistance, even when women have access to look for alternative income, women try to find additional income by working modestly.


Keywords : Women; poverty trap; south merapi slope


 


Copyright (c) 2023 Geosfera Indonesia and Department of Geography Education, University of Jember


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share A like 4.0 International License

References

Agustina, E., Ernawati, E., Irvita, M., & Putri, C. (2021). Dampak masa pandemi covid-19 dalam perspektif kesetaraan gender. UNUSIA CONFERENCE, 1(1), 89 - 100. Retrieved from http://journal.unusia.ac.id/index.php/Conferenceunusia/article/view/194.

Ahmad, N. R., Kanto, S. & Susilo, E. (2015). Fenomena kemiskinan dari perspektif kepala rumah tangga perempuan miskin (studi fenomenologi tentang makna dan penyebab, serta strategi penanggulangan feminisasi kemiskinan di Desa Wonorejo, Kecamatan Singosari, Kabupaten Malang). WACANA, Jurnal sosial dan humaniora, 18(4) 221-230. https://doi.org/10.21776/ub.wacana.2015.018.04.2.

Ali, T., Ali, H., Jibu, S. A., Muna, R., Basri, A. H., & Hudafi, H. (2022). Ketahanan keluarga petani di masa pandemi covid-19 (Studi Kasus di Desa Jleper Kecamatan Mijen Kabupaten Demak. Nusantara: Jurnal Ilmu Pengetahuan Sosial, 9(4). http://dx.doi.org/10.31604/jips.v9i4.2022.1364-1374.

Alie, A., & Elanda, Y. (2021). Feminisasi kemiskinan dan daya lenting ibu rumah tangga di Kota Surabaya. Jurnal Sosiologi Pendidikan Humanis, 6(2). http://dx.doi.org/10.17977/um021v6i2p198-215.

Almeida, M., Shrestha, A., Stojanac, D., & Miller, L. J. (2020). The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on women’s mental health. Arch Womens Ment Health, 23, 741–748. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00737-020-01092-2.

Alon, T., Doepke, M., Rumsey, J. O., & Tertilt, M. (2020). The impact of covid 19 on gender equality. National Bureau of Economic Research. https://doi.org/10.3386/w26947.

BPS. (2022). Biro Pusat Statistik. Angka Kemiskinan Di Indonesia Maret 2022. Jakarta.

Brannen, J. (1999). Memadu Metode Penelitian Kualitatif dan Kuantitatif. Terjemaah H. Nuktah Arfawie Kurde, Imam Safe’i, Nooerhaidi AH. Fakultas Tarbiyah IAIN Antasari Samarinda bekerjasama dengan Pustaka Pelajar (Anggota IKAPI) Glagah UH IV/343 Yogyakarta 55164.

Ceballos , F. Kannan, S., & Kramer, B. (2020). Impacts of a national lockdown on smallholder farmers’ income and food security: Empirical evidence from two states in India. World Development, 136. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2020.105069.

Chen, J. (2020). Pathogenicity and transmissibility of 2019-nCoV—A quick overview and comparison with other emerging viruses. Microbes and Infection, 22(2), Pages 69-71. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.micinf.2020.01.004.

Cholankeril, R., Xiang, E., & Badr, H. (2023). Gender differences in coping and psychological adaptation during the COVID-19. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(2), 993; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20020993.

Ciotti, M., Ciccozzi, M., Terrinoni, A., Jiang, W. C., Wang, C. B., & Bernardini, S. (2020). The COVID-19 pandemic. Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences, 57:6, 365-388. https://doi.org/10.1080/10408363.2020.1783198.

Darin-Mattsson, A., Fors, S., & Kåreholt, I. (2017). Different indicators of socioeconomic status and their relative importance as determinants of health in old age. International journal for equity in health, 16(1), 173. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12939-017-0670-3.

Desjardins, M. R., Hohl, A., & Delmelle, E. M. (2020). Rapid surveillance of COVID-19 in the United States using a prospective space-time scan statistic: Detecting and evaluating emerging clusters. Applied Geography, 118. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeog.2020.102202.

Dlamini, W. M., Dlamini, S. N., Mabaso, S. D., & Simelane, S. P. (2020). Spatial risk assessment of an emerging pandemic under data scarcity: A case of COVID-19 in Eswatini. Applied Geography, 125. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeog.2020.102358.

El Keshky, M. E. S., Basyouni, S. S., & Al Sabban, A. M. (2020). Getting through covid-19: the pandemic’s impact on the psychology of sustainability, quality of life, and the global economy – a systematic review. Front. Psychol. 11:585897. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.585897.

Esariti, L., Haulah, L., & Sunarti, S. (2019). Pengarusutamaan gender dalam program gerbang hebat sebagai strategi pengentasan kemiskinan di Kota Semarang. TATA LOKA, 21(1) 140-152. https://doi.org/10.14710/tataloka.21.1.140-152.

Faeni, D. P., Faeni, R. P., Riyadh, H. A., & Yuliansyah, Y. (2023), The COVID-19 pandemic impact on the global tourism industry SMEs: a human capital development perspective. Review of International Business and Strategy, 33(2), 317-327. https://doi.org/10.1108/RIBS-08-2021-0116.

Fajri, A. N. (2021). Strategi Bertahan Hidup Petani (Studi pada keluarga petani karet di Desa Jeriji pada masa pandemi COVID 19). Jurnal Studi Inovasi, 1(3). https://doi.org/10.52000/jsi.v1i3.47.

Faletehan, A. F., Mauludin, M. F., & Hakim, A. K. (2022). Studi Kualitatif tentang jebakan kemiskinan pada masyarakat pesisir di Pasuruan, Jawa Timur. Buletin Ilmiah Marina
Sosial Ekonomi Kelautan Dan Perikanan, 8(1), 73-82. http://dx.doi.org/10.15578/marina.v8i1.10960.

Forati, A. M., & Ghose, R. (2021). Geospatial analysis of misinformation in COVID-19 related tweets. Applied Geography, 133. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeog.2021.102473.

Frans, B.T. (2021). Model pemberdayaan perempuan single parent dalam mengatasi kemiskinan di Kecamatan Witihama Kabupaten Flores Timur. Warta Governare: Jurnal Pemerintahan, 2(2).

Fraser , N., Brierley , L., Dey, G., Polka, J. K., Pálfy, M., Nanni, F., Coates, J. A. (2021). The evolving role of preprints in the dissemination of COVID-19 research and their impact on the science communication landscape. PLoS Biol, 19(4): e3000959. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000959.

Goldin, C. (2022). Understanding the Economic Impact of COVID-19 on Women. Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, 1, 65-139.

Grekousis, G., Wang, R., & Liu, Y. (2021). Mapping the geodemographics of racial, economic, health, and COVID-19 deaths inequalities in the conterminous US. Applied Geography, 135. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeog.2021.102558.

Hutabarat, J. S., Krismonika, G., & Lofa, E. (2022). Perempuan di tengah konflik dan upaya membangun perdamaian yang berkelanjutan di masa pandemi covid-19. Jurnal Lemhannas RI 8 (3), 122-31. https://doi.org/10.55960/jlri.v8i3.337.

Jin, H., Lu, L., Liu, J., & Cui, M. (2020). Complex emergencies of COVID-19: management and experience in Zhuhai, China. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, 55(5). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105961.

Klassen, S., & Murphy, S. (2020). Equity as both a means and an end: Lessons for resilient food systems from COVID-19. World development, 136, 105104. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2020.105104.

Lai, C. C., Wang, C. Y., Wang, Y. H., Hsueh, S. C., Ko, W. C., & Hsueh, P. R. (2020). Global epidemiology of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): disease incidence, daily cumulative index, mortality, and their association with country healthcare resources and economic status. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, 55(4). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105946.


Lawalu, E. M., & Goba, M. K. (2020). Partisipasi perempuan pedagang kaki lima dalam meningkatkan ekonomi rumah tangga sebelum dan setelah adanya COVID. Jurnal Ekonomi Pembangunan, 5(3), 21 – 30. https://doi.org/10.32938/jep.v5i3.658.

Li, L., Taeihagh, A., & Tan, S. Y. (2023). A Scoping review of the impact of COVID-19 physical distancing measures on vulnerable populations group. Nat Commun 14, 599. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-023-36267-9.

Li, J. Y., You, Z., Wang, Q., Zhou, Z. J., Qiu, Y., Luo, R., & Ge, X. Y. (2020). The epidemic of 2019-novel-coronavirus (2019-nCoV) pneumonia and insights for emerging infectious diseases in the future. Microbes and Infection, 22(2). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.micinf.2020.02.002.

Lone, S. A., & Aijaz Ahmad, A. (2020). COVID-19 pandemic – an African perspective. Emerging Microbes & Infections, 9:1, 1300-1308. https://10.1080/22221751.2020.1775132.

Malik, S., & Naeem, K. (2020). Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Women: Health, livelihoods & domestic violence. Sustainable Development Policy Institute.

McKenzie, G., & Adams, B. (2020). A country comparison of place-based activity response to COVID-19 policies. Applied Geography, 125. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeog.2020.102363.

Mohapatra, R. K., Das, P. K., & Kandi, V. (2020). Challenges in controlling COVID-19 in migrants in Odisha, India. Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews, 14. 1593-1594. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsx.2020.08.024.

Moita, S., Monto, L. O. ., Kasim, S. S., & Sarmadan, S. (2021). Pelatihan kewirausahaan bagi perempuan pelaku Usaha Kecil Menengah (UKM) terdampak pandemi covid-19. Jurnal Abdidas, 2(2), 263 - 272. https://doi.org/10.31004/abdidas.v2i2.253.

Mou, J. (2020). Research on the Impact of COVID19 on Global Economy. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 546(3),032-043. https://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/546/3/032043.

Ozili, P. K., & Arun, T. (2023). Spillover of COVID-19: Impact on the Global Economy. IGI Global. https://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-6684-5876-1.ch004.

Padhan, R., & Prabeesh, K.P. (2021). The economics of COVID-19 pandemic: A survey. Economic Analysis and Policy, 70,220-237. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eap.2021.02.012.

Rab, S., Afjal., Javaid, M., Haleem, A., & Vaishya, R. (2020).An update on the global vaccine development for coronavirus. Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews, 14, 2053-2055. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsx.2020.10.023.

Roe, D., Dickman, A., Kock, R., Milner-Gulland, E. J., Rihoy, E., & 't Sas-Rolfes, M. (2020). Beyond banning wildlife trade: COVID-19, conservation and development. World development, 136, 105121. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2020.105121.

Rusdianti, E., Purwantini, S., & Wahdi, N. (2019). Strategi pengentasan kemiskinan melalui program pendirian dan pengembangan koperasi. Dinamika Sosial Budaya, 21(2) 172-181. http://dx.doi.org/10.26623/jdsb.v21i2.1765.

Sari, E., & Fikri Zufar, B. N. (2021). Perempuan pencari nafkah selama pandemi Covid-19. Al-Mada: Jurnal Agama, Sosial, Dan Budaya, 4(1), 13-29. https://doi.org/10.31538/almada.v4i1.1106.

Sapkota, T., Houkes, I., & Bosma, H. (2021). Vicious cycle of chronic disease and poverty: a qualitative study in present day Nepal. International Health, 13(1), 30–38, https://doi.org/10.1093/inthealth/ihaa016.

Shakouri, S., Bakhshali, M. A., Layegh, P., Kiani, B., Masoumi, F., Nakhaei, S. A., & Mostafavi, S. M. (2021). COVID19-CT-dataset: an open-access chest CT image repository of 1000+ patients with confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis. BMC Res Notes, 14, 178. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13104-021-05592-x.

Shalihin, N., & Firdaus. (2019). Transformasi gender: strategi pembebasan perempuan dari jerat pembangunan dan kapitalisme. SAWWA: Jurnal Studi Gender, 14 (1), 109-140. https://doi.org/10.21580/sa.v14i1.3366.

Shokirov, M. M. (2022). Impact of the corona virus pandemic on the global economy. Procedia of Social Sciences and Humanities, 1, 350-353. https://doi.org/10.21070/pssh.v1i.84.

Sridhar, A., Balakrishnan, A., Jacob, M. M., Sillanpaa, M., & Dayanandan, N. (2023). Global impact of COVID-19 on agriculture: role of sustainable agriculture and digital farming. Environ Sci Pollut Res, 30, 42509–42525. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-022-19358-w.

Sulaeman, K. M., & Salsabila, F. R. (2020). Dampak COVID-19 terhadap kaum perempuan: perspektif feminisme. Sentris, 1(2). https://doi.org/10.26593/sentris.v1i2.4283.159-172.

Suryasa, I. W., Rodríguez-Gámez, M., & Koldoris, T. (2021). The COVID-19 pandemic. International Journal of Health Sciences, 5(2), vi-ix. https://doi.org/10.53730/ijhs.v5n2.2937.

Susilowati, S. H., & Maulana, M. (2012). Luas lahan usahatani dan kesejahteraan petani : eksistensi petani gurem dan urgensi kebijakan reforma agraria. Analisis Kebijakan Pertanian, 10(1), 17-30. http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/akp.v10n1.2012.17-30.

Syahrial, S. (2020). Dampak covid-19 terhadap tenaga kerja di Indonesia. Jurnal Ners, 4(2), 21–29. https://doi.org/10.31004/jn.v4i2.1022.

Tan, M. G. (1991). Perubahan Struktur Sosial di Bengkulu. Yogyakarta: UGM Press.

Turayev, B., & Sharma, A. (2021). Development of the tourism industry before and after the covid pandemic. Procedia of Social Sciences and Humanities, 1, 178-192. https://doi.org/10.21070/pssh.v1i.40.

UNFPA. (2020). Impact of the COVID- 19 Pandemic on Family Planning and Ending Gender-based Violence, Female Genital Mutilation and Child Marriage Pandemic threatens achievement of the Transformative Results committed to by UNFPA with contributions from Avenir Health. Johns Hopkins University (USA) and Victoria University (Australia).

Wadhwa, A., & Thakur, M. K. (2022). Rapid surveillance of COVID-19 by timely detection of geographically robust, alive and emerging hotspots using Particle Swarm Optimizer. Applied Geography, 144, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeog.2022.102719.

Walelign, S. Z., Charlery, L. C., & Pouliot, M. (2021) Poverty trap or means to escape poverty? empirical evidence on the role of environmental income in Rural Nepal. The Journal of Development Studies, 57:10, 1613-1639. https://doi.org/10.1080/00220388.2021.1873282.

Wang, J., Cui, M., & Chang, L. (2023). Evaluating economic recovery by measuring the covid-19 spillover impact on business practices: eviden from asian markets intermediaries. Economic Change and Restructuring, 56, 1629–1650. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10644-023-09482-z.

Wang, L., Wang, Y., Ye, D., & Liu, Q. (2020). Review of the 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) based on current evidence. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, 55(6). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105948.

Wiasti, N. M., & Wedasantara, I. B. O. (2022). Peran perempuan desa antap dalam perekonomian rumah tangga pada masa covid 19. Journal of Arts and Humanities, 26(2). https://doi.org/10.24843/JH.2022.v26.i02.p.

Widodo, S. (2017). A Critical review of Indonesia’s agrarian reform policy. Journal of Regional and City Planning, 28(3). https://doi.org/10.5614/jrcp.2017.28.3.4.

Zahrawati, F. (2020). Pembebasan jerat feminisasi kemiskinan. Jurnal Pendidikan Sosial dan Budaya, 2 (1), 9-16. https://doi.org/10.35905/almaarief.v2i1.1327.

Zhang, Y., Sun, F., Huang, Z., Song, L., Jin, S., & Chen, L. (2023). Predicting the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on globalization. Journal of Cleaner Production, 409. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2023.137173.
Published
2023-08-29
How to Cite
HASTUTI, Hastuti; SUTRISNOWATI, Sri Agustin. Women and The Poverty Trap (Study on The South Merapi Slope). Geosfera Indonesia, [S.l.], v. 8, n. 2, p. 152-169, aug. 2023. ISSN 2614-8528. Available at: <https://jurnal.unej.ac.id/index.php/GEOSI/article/view/34798>. Date accessed: 24 july 2024. doi: https://doi.org/10.19184/geosi.v8i2.34798.
Section
Original Research Articles