Risk Perception and Preparedness in Flash Flood-Affected Communities: Evidence from Bahorok, Indonesia

  • Furqan Ishak Aksa Department of Geography Education, Universitas Samudra, Jalan Prof. Syarief Thayeb, Langsa, Aceh, 24415, Indonesia http://orcid.org/0000-0001-5420-2810
  • Egianinta Sinulingga Department of Geography Education, Universitas Samudra, Jalan Prof. Syarief Thayeb, Langsa, Aceh, 24415, Indonesia


The Bahorok River basin has a high flash-flood hazard index. This is shown by loss of lives and damage of homes due to floods in recent years, however, no research examined community preparedness on the hazard of flash-flood. This research aimed to assess the effect of disaster experience and flood-risk perception on disaster preparedness of the people of Bukit Lawang Plantation Village. A cross-sectional survey design was used to determine the relationship between disaster experience, risk perception and preparedness as the independent and dependent variables, respectively. The results showed that disaster experience and risk perception positively and significantly affect the community preparedness. Disaster risk reduction programs in the region only focus on emergency response, rehabilitation, and reconstruction. Furthermore, increasing public awareness and preparedness has not been prioritized in reducing flood risk. This is an essential aspect for consideration because mountainous areas are often marginalized and lack access to disaster risk reduction programs.

Keywords : Flood-risk perception; preparedness; flash flood


Copyright (c) 2022 Geosfera Indonesia and Department of Geography Education, University of Jember

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share A like 4.0 International License


Adelekan, I. O., & Asiyanbi, A. P. (2016). Flood risk perception in flood-affected communities in Lagos, Nigeria. Natural Hazards, 80(1), 445–469. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-015-1977-2.

Aksa, F. I. (2020). Wisdom of Indigenous and Tacit Knowledge for Disaster Risk Reduction. Indonesian Journal of Geography, 52(3), 419–427.

Aksa, F. I., Utaya, S., Bachri, S., & Handoyo, B. (2020a). Investigating the role of geography education in enhancing earthquake preparedness : Evidence from Aceh, Indonesia. International Journal of GEOMATE, 19(76), 9–16. https://doi.org/10.21660/2020.74.90006.

Aksa, F. I., Utaya, S., Bachri, S., & Handoyo, B. (2020b). The role of knowledge and fatalism in college students related to the earthquake-risk perception. Jàmbá - Journal of Disaster Risk Studies, 12(1), 1–6. https://doi.org/https:// doi.org/10.4102/jamba. v12i1.954.

Amercian-Red-Cross. (2015). "Prepare Your Home and Family. Retrieved from http://www.redcross.org/prepare/location/home-family.

Ao, Y., Zhou, X., Ji, F., Wang, Y., Yang, L., Wang, Q., & Martek, I. (2020). Flood disaster preparedness: experience and attitude of rural residents in Sichuan, China. Natural Hazards, 104(3), 2591–2618. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-020-04286-0.

Atreya, A., Czajkowski, J., Botzen, W., Bustamante, G., Campbell, K., Collier, B., Ianni, F., Kunreuther, H., Michel-Kerjan, E., & Montgomery, M. (2017). Adoption of flood preparedness actions: A household level study in rural communities in Tabasco, Mexico. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 24, 428–438. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2017.05.025.

Becker, J. S., Paton, D., Johnston, D. M., Ronan, K. R., & McClure, J. (2017). The role of prior experience in informing and motivating earthquake preparedness. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 22(March), 179–193. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2017.03.006.

BNPB. (2019). Data Informasi Bencana Indonesia. Badan Nasional Penanggulangan Bencana. https://bnpb.cloud/dibi/.

Bodoque, J. M., Díez-Herrero, A., Amerigo, M., García, J. A., & Olcina, J. (2019a). Enhancing flash flood risk perception and awareness of mitigation actions through risk communication: A pre-post survey design. Journal of Hydrology, 568(January), 769–779. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2018.11.007.

Bodoque, J. M., Díez-Herrero, A., Amerigo, M., García, J. A., & Olcina, J. (2019b). Enhancing flash flood risk perception and awareness of mitigation actions through risk communication: A pre-post survey design. Journal of Hydrology, 568, 769–779. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2018.11.007.

Box, P., Bird, D., Haynes, K., & King, D. (2016). Shared responsibility and social vulnerability in the 2011 Brisbane flood. Natural Hazards, 81(3), 1549–1568. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-016-2145-z.

Ejeta, L. T., Ardalan, A., Paton, D., & Yaseri, M. (2018). Emotional and cognitive factors influencing flood preparedness in Dire Dawa town , Ethiopia. Natural Hazards. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-018-3321-0.

Felgentreff, C. (2003). Post-disaster situations as "windows of opportunity"? Post-flood perceptions and changes in the German Odra River region after the 1997 flood. Erde, 134(2), 163–180.

Flowerdew, R., & Martin, D. (2005). Methods in Human Geography. In Methods in human geography: a guide for students doing a research project. http://books.google.com/books?id=rRvtmefLjDYC&pgis=1.

Gobo, A. E., Amangabara, G. T., & Pepple, W. W. (2013). Public Perception of Tidal Flooding Hazards on Bonny Island, Rivers State; Nigeria. M Arine Science, 2013(3), 91–99. https://doi.org/10.5923/j.ms.20130303.04.

Harvatt, J., Petts, J., & Chilvers, J. (2011). Understanding householder responses to natural hazards : flooding and sea ‐ level rise comparisons. Journal of Risk Research, 63(83), 37–41. https://doi.org/10.1080/13669877.2010.503935.

Hoffmann, R., & Muttarak, R. (2017). Learn from the Past, Prepare for the Future: Impacts of Education and Experience on Disaster Preparedness in the Philippines and Thailand. World Development, 96, 32–51. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.02.016.

Knowles, M. S. (2012). The Adult Learner. Routledge.

Kuang, D., & Liao, K. H. (2020). Learning from Floods: Linking flood experience and flood resilience. Journal of Environmental Management, 271(October), 111025. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2020.111025.

Lawrence, J., Quade, D., & Becker, J. (2014). Integrating the effects of flood experience on risk perception with responses to changing climate risk. Natural Hazards, 74(3), 1773–1794. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-014-1288-z.

Lindell, M. K., & Perry, R. W. (2012). The Protective Action Decision Model: Theoretical Modifications and Additional Evidence. Risk Analysis, 32(4), 616–632. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1539-6924.2011.01647.x.

Martins, B., & Nunes, A. (2020). Exploring flash flood risk perception using PCA analysis: The case of Mindelo, S. Vicente (Cape Verde). Geographical Journal, 186(4), 375–389. https://doi.org/10.1111/geoj.12357.

Muttarak, R., & Pothisiri, W. (2013). The role of education on disaster preparedness: Case study of 2012 Indian Ocean earthquakes on Thailand's Andaman coast. Ecology and Society, 18(4), 1–17. https://doi.org/10.5751/ES-06101-180451.

Muzenda-Mudavanhu, C., Manyena, B., & Collins, A. E. (2016). Disaster risk reduction knowledge among children in Muzarabani District, Zimbabwe. Natural Hazards, 84(2), 911–931. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-016-2465-z.

Naseri, M. K., & Kang, D. (2017). A primary assessment of society-based earthquake disaster mitigation in Kabul city, Afghanistan. Journal of Disaster Research, 12(1), 158–162. https://doi.org/10.20965/jdr.2017.p0158.

Ohtomo, S., Kimura, R., & Hirata, N. (2017). The Influences of Residents' Evacuation Patterns in the 2016 Kumamoto Earthquake on Public Risk Perceptions and Trust Toward Authorities. Journal of Disaster Research, 12(6), 1139–1150.

Roder, G., Hudson, P., & Tarolli, P. (2019). Flood risk perceptions and the willingness to pay for flood insurance in the Veneto region of Italy. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 37(October 2018). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2019.101172.

Saragih, A. (2016). Model Penanggulangan Bencana dI Kawasan Taman Nasional Gunung Leuser dalam Perspektif Politik Ekologi. POLITIKA, 7(1).

Shaw, R., Shiwaku, K., Kobayashi, H., & Kobayashi, M. (2004). Linking experience, education, perception and earthquake preparedness. Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, 13(1), 39–49. https://doi.org/10.1108/09653560410521689.

Tekeli-Yeşil, S., Dedeoǧlu, N., Braun-Fahrlaender, C., & Tanner, M. (2011). Earthquake awareness and perception of risk among the residents of Istanbul. Natural Hazards, 59(1), 427–446. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-011-9764-1.

Terpstra, T. (2011). Emotions, Trust, and Perceived Risk: Affective and Cognitive Routes to Flood Preparedness Behavior. Risk Analysis, 31(10), 1658–1675. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1539-6924.2011.01616.x.

Tullos, D., Byron, E., Galloway, G., Obeysekera, J., Prakash, O., & Sun, Y. H. (2016). Review of challenges of and practices for sustainable management of mountain flood hazards. Natural Hazards, 83(3), 1763–1797. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-016-2400-3.

Wachinger, G., Renn, O., Begg, C., & Kuhlicke, C. (2013). The risk perception paradox-implications for governance and communication of natural hazards. Risk Analysis, 33(6), 1049–1065. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1539-6924.2012.01942.x.

Astuti, N. M. W., Werdhiana, I. K., & Wahyono, U. (2021). Impacts of direct disaster experience on teachers' knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of disaster risk reduction curriculum implementation in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 53, 101992. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2020.101992
How to Cite
AKSA, Furqan Ishak; SINULINGGA, Egianinta. Risk Perception and Preparedness in Flash Flood-Affected Communities: Evidence from Bahorok, Indonesia. Geosfera Indonesia, [S.l.], v. 7, n. 1, p. 61-71, apr. 2022. ISSN 2614-8528. Available at: <https://jurnal.unej.ac.id/index.php/GEOSI/article/view/28645>. Date accessed: 02 oct. 2022. doi: https://doi.org/10.19184/geosi.v7i1.28645.
Original Research Articles