Evaluation of Groundwater Resources in Aiyar Basin: A GIS Approach for Agricultural Planning and Development

  • K Balasubramani School of Earth Sciences, Central University of Tamil Nadu, CUTN Bridge Neelakudy, Tamil Nadu, 610005, India
  • M Gomathi Department of Geography, Bharathidasan University, Palkalaiperur, Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu, 620024, India
  • K Kumaraswamy Department of Geography, Bharathidasan University, Palkalaiperur, Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu, 620024, India

Abstract

Groundwater is an integral part of agriculture and rural development. In the present study, an attempt has been made to analyse the spatio-temporal variations of groundwater level in Aiyar basin using spatial statistics and GIS so as to associate the variations with cropping pattern; to suggest agricultural planning and development practices. The groundwater level was measured in the basin through 40 dug wells in the months of July (pre-monsoon) and January (post-monsoon) besides water level data collected from 50 permanent monitoring wells for a period of thirty-six years (1980-2015) from the State Groundwater Division for spatial and statistical analyses. In order to understand the fluctuations in the groundwater level of the basin, seasonal groundwater levels were computed for pre and post-monsoon seasons. To understand the regional variations in water level fluctuations, hot spot analysis is carried out using Getis-Ord Gi* statistics in GIS. Based on z-score, the basin is divided into five clusters. The long-term fluctuation of groundwater level in each cluster was examined independently and the trends were determined. Based on the trend of groundwater level and cropping pattern of the clusters, suggestions are drawn for each cluster for agricultural planning and development. By comparing the clusters, it is found that the foot of Kollimalai and Pachamalai hills (cluster-4 and 5) experiences a severe drop in groundwater level. During the last 36 years, the water table of these clusters is decreased from 4 m to 10 m BGL and the rate of decline is very severe after the drought years of 2002-2003. The main reason for the declining water level in this region is the cultivation of wet crops especially paddy and sugarcane in extensive areas, although irrigation facilities are limited and the climate is conducive only for rainfed agriculture. Hence, it is necessitated to reduce the acreage of wet crops and compensate by suitable dry crops in these clusters.    


Keywords: Groundwater, Agriculture, GIS, Hot Spot Analysis, River basin, SDG

References

Ahmadi, S. H., Sedghamiz, A., (2000). Geostatistical Analysis of Spatial and Temporal Variations of Groundwater Level. Environment Monitoring and Assessment, 129:277–294. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-006-9361-z

Anbazhagan, S., Ramasamy, S.M., (2005). Evaluation of areas for artificial groundwater recharge in Ayyar basin, Tamil Nadu, India through statistical terrain analysis. Journal Geological Society of India, 67(1):59-68.

Balasubramani, K., (2018). Physical resources assessment in a semi-arid watershed: An integrated methodology for sustainable land use planning. ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing 142:358–379. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.isprsjprs.2018.03.008

Balasubramani, K., Rutharvel Murthy, K., Gomathi, M., Kumaraswamy, K., (2019). Integrated assessment of groundwater resources in a semi-arid watershed of South India: implications for irrigated agriculture. GeoJournal, 1-23 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10708-019-10050-0

Bindraban, P.S. Marijnvan der V., LimingYe, et al., (2012). Assessing the impact of soil degradation on food production. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 4(5): 478-488 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cosust.2012.09.015

Buvaneshwari, S. Riotte, J., Ruiz, L. et al., (2017). Impacts of land-use and soil properties on groundwater quality in the hard rock aquifer of an irrigated catchment: the Berambadi (Southern India). In proceedings of 19th EGU General Assembly, Vienna.

FAO, (2011). The state of the world’s land and water resources for food and agriculture - Managing systems at risk. Food and Agricultural Organization, Rome. http://www.fao.org/docrep/017/i1688e/i1688e.pdf (15 November 2019)

FAO, (2016). Land degradation assessment in drylands - Manual for local level assessment of land degradation and sustainable land management Part-1. Food and Agricultural Organization, Rome http://www.fao.org/ publications/card/en/c/40875549-ecc8-4388-b944-26edc9b58272 (15 November 2019)

Gomathi, M. and Kumaraswamy, K., (2016). Patterns of Crop Concentration and Diversification in Aiyar basin, Central Tamil Nadu. Punjab Geographer, 12:97-112.

Gupta, P.K., Sharma, D., (2018). Assessment of hydrological and hydrochemical vulnerability of groundwater in semi-arid region of Rajasthan, India. Sustainable Water Resources Management, 5:847–861 https://doi.org/10.1007/s40899-018-0260-6

Kumar, M., Kumari, K., Ramanathan, A. et al., (2007). A comparative evaluation of groundwater suitability for irrigation and drinking purposes in two intensively cultivated districts of Punjab, India. Environmental Geology, 53:553-574. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00254-007-0672-3

Mitchell, A., (2005). The ESRI Guide to GIS Analysis, Volume 2. ESRI Press, Red Lands.

Morris, B.L., Lawrence, A.R.L., Chilton, P.J.C., Adams, B., Calow R.C., Klinck, B.A., (2003). Groundwater and its Susceptibility to Degradation: A Global Assessment of the Problem and Options for Management. Early Warning and Assessment Report Series, RS. 03-3. United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi.

Nachtergaele, F. Biancalani, R., Petri, M., (2011). Land degradation. SOLAW Background Thematic Report 3. Food and Agricultural Organization, Rome http://www.fao.org/nr/solaw/thematic-reports/en/ (15 November 2019)

Reghunath, R., Sreedhara Murthy, T. R., Raghavan, B. R., (2005). Time Series Analysis to Monitor and Assess Water Resources: A Moving Average Approach. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 109:65–72.

Singh, A., (2018). Managing the environmental problems of irrigated agriculture through the appraisal of groundwater recharge. Ecological Indicators, 92:388-393 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2017.11.065

Sivasankar, V., Ramachandramoorthy, T., Chandramohan, A., (2013). Deterioration of coastal groundwater quality in Island and mainland regions of Ramanathapuram District, southern India. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 185(1):931-944 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-012-2604-2

Copyright (c) 2019 Geosfera Indonesia Journal and Department of Geography Education, University of Jember
Published
2019-12-30
How to Cite
BALASUBRAMANI, K; GOMATHI, M; KUMARASWAMY, K. Evaluation of Groundwater Resources in Aiyar Basin: A GIS Approach for Agricultural Planning and Development. Geosfera Indonesia, [S.l.], v. 4, n. 3, p. 302-310, dec. 2019. ISSN 2614-8528. Available at: <https://jurnal.unej.ac.id/index.php/GEOSI/article/view/14954>. Date accessed: 25 sep. 2020. doi: https://doi.org/10.19184/geosi.v4i3.14954.
Section
Original Research Articles